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And Their Distribution 

A. C, HADDON, Sc.D., F.R.S., 



J I 



Frederick A. Stokes Company, 



reduction ... ... ••• ... ix 

e Basis of Classification ... ... ... 1 

Skin-Colour, 2 ; Hair, 2; Stature, 3; Nose, 3; 
Face, 4 ; Head-Form, 4. 

flnitions of race, people, tribe, nation, ... 6 

Classification of Mankind ... ... ... 7,8 

ii3 Main Physical Characters and Distribution 

of the Ulotrichi: — ... ... 9-12 

Andamanese, 9 ; Semang, 9 ; Negritoes of the 
Philippines or Aetas, 9 ; Negrilloes, 9 : Bush- 
men, 10; Hottentots, 10; Negroes: Western 
Sudanese or Nigritian, Eastern Sudanese or 
Nilotic Negroes, 11 ; Bantu, 11 ; Papuans, 11 
Melanesians, 12. 

e Main Physical Characters and Distribution 

of the Cymotrichi: — ... ... 12-16 

Veddas, 12 ; Jungle Tribes of the Deccan, 12 ; 
Sakai, 12 ; Toala, 13 ; Australians, 13 ; Dravid- 
ians, 13; Ethiopians or Hamites, 13; Indo- 
Afghans, 13 ; Indonesians, 14 ; Polynesians, 14 ; 
Semites, 14 ; Mediterraneans, 15 ; Nordics or 
Teutonic Race, 15 ; Ainu, 15 ; Alpines or Alpine 
Race, 15 : Cevenole, Dinaric or Adriatic, 
Anatolian or Armenian, 16. 

(3 *lain Physical Characters and Distribution 

of the Leiotrichi : — ... ... 16-19 

Palseasiatics or Eastern Siberians, 16; 
Tungus, 16; Koreans, 17; Mongols, 17; Turki, 17; 
Ugrians, 17; Indo-Chinese, Pareaeans, or 
Southern Mongols, 18; Eskimo, 18; Palaeo- 
Amerinds, 19 ; Patagonians, 19 ; Southern 
Amerinds, 19 ; Central Amerinds, 19 : North- 

™~»A~-.« A «*»•*< r» /-la 1Q. Wnr+hom AmprlnHk. 1Q_ 

W. ' >•;;•*.■ •'.*. Contents 

* * • • • • t • * 

Distribution of Races and Peoples according to 

Areas!—- •«• ••■ ... .., ^u-j-l^ 


General account of the distribution and migra- 
tions of the Oceanians, 20; The Ethnography 
of the Australians, 22; — Papuans ana 
Melanesians, 24 ; — Polynesians, 28. 


General account of the distribution and migra- 
tions of the Africans, 31 ; The Ethnography 
of the Negrilloes, 34; — Bushmen, 34; 
—Hottentots, 35; —Negroes, 36; — Bantus, 38 


General account of the distribution of tht 
Europeans, 40 ; Physical characters and racial 
elements in the populations of Scandinavia, 41 ; 
— British Isles, 41 ; — France, 41 ; — Switzer- 
land, 42; — Belguim, 42 ; — Netherlands, 43; 
— Germany, 43; — Austria, 43; — Hungary, 43" 
— Russia, 44; — Balkan States, 45; — Greece, 46 
—Italy, 46 ; —Spain, 47. 


General account of the distribution and migra- 
tions of the Asiatics, 48 ; The Ethnography cf 
the Ural-Altaians, 52; — India, 56; — Assam, 65: 
— Burma, 68 ; — the Negritoes of Asia, 70 
— Malay Peninsula, 74 ; — Borneo, 76. 


Classification of the Amerinds, 79 ; Th 
Ethnography of the Eskimo, 80 ; — North 
Pacific Tribes, 81 ; —Tribes of the Pacifi : 
Coast, 83 ; — Tribes of the Great Plains, 85 
— Northern Tribes of the Eastern Woodlands, 87 , 
—Tribes of the South-west, 88: —Centra; 
America, 89 ; — The Cordillera of the Andes, 90; 
— The Plains of the Amazon and the Orinoco, 
with Guiana, 93 ; — Eastern and Southern 
Brazil, 97; — The Pa- ~ ' " 

Tierra del Fuego, 99. 
Glossary ... ••• ••• ••• 




Plate I. — Frontispiece, A Jicarilla Apache, 
Athapascan stock. Note the typical profile and 
lank hair. He is wearing a war head-dress with 
a beaded frontlet and silver earrings. There are 
four painted lines over the cheek-bone. 

Plate II. — Two Koiari Men of the village of 
Makabiri ; typical, ulotrichous, bearded Papuans 
of the central district of British New Guinea ... 11 

(a) Height l'692m. (5ft. 6£in.), cephalic index 77*2. 

(b) „ 1 '657m. (5ft. 4fcin.), „ „ 70 

Plate III. — An Arab (Semite) ... ... ... 14 

Plate IV.— An Ainu of the Saru river valley, Yezo. 
Note the non- Mongolian features, abundant 
cymotrichous hair on head and face He is 
wearing the ceremonial fillet, from which two 
squares of cloth depend on each side, and a 
wooden carving of a bear's head is attached to 
the front ... ... ... ... 15 

Plate V. — An Old Chinese Man and a Young Boy ; 
the latter exhibits pronounced "Mongolian" 
features. Nanking ... ... ... 18 


viii. List of Plates 

Plate VI. — A Northern Australian, with curly hair, 
a broad nose, through the septum of which is 
inserted a long bone (probably a wing bone of a 
wild swan) ; the body and arms are decorated 
with cicatrices and cheloids ... ... 2$ 

Plate VII. — A Maori Chief (Polynesian), whose 
face is decorated with moko, or fine grooves 
chipped into the skin, pigment being inserted 
during the operation of cutting. In true 
tattooing the design is formed by minute 
punctures ... ... ... ... 28 

Plate VIII. — A Negrillo, or African Pygmy, from 
the Kasai Valley, Congo. Note the ulotrichous 
hair, broad flattish nose, and thick lips ; the face 
and head are broad ... ... ... 34 

Plate IX. — An Eskimo. Note the straight hair, and 
greater development of the " Mongolian fold " 
in the left eye ... ... ... ... 80 

Plate X. — Two Patagonians, one holding a lasso 
and the other a bolas; the fillet is very 
characteristic ... ... ... ... 100 

Plates I, IV, VIII, IX and X are from photographs taken at 
the St. Louis Exposition, 1904, by the staff of the Field 
Museum of Natural History, Chicago, and given to me by my 
friend, Dr. G. A. Dorsey, with full permission to reproduce 

Plate II is from a photograph taken on the Cambridge 
Expedition to Torres Straits, etc., 1898. 

Plates III, VI, and VII are from purchased photographs. 

Plate V is from a photograph taken by my friend, Mr. J. 


It is an extremely difficult matter to give in a very 
short space a well-balanced account of the races and 
peoples of mankind, for it is impossible to deal adequately 
with the subject in a small book ; and, furthermore, our 
information is far from complete. The present effort 
must necessarily be open to grave criticism from many 

This little work falls naturally into two parts. The 
first deals with some of the physical characters employed 
in classification, and a grouping of the main stocks 
according to those characters, together with their 
geographical distribution. The effects of European 
colonisation are entirely omitted. 

The second part is devoted to a consideration of the 

five large areas, Oceania, Africa, Europe, Asia, and 

merica. Each section is preceded by a sketch of the 

stribution of the races and peoples in the area, and a 

pothetical sketch of some of the larger movements of 

pulation that may have taken place. Then follows a 

ief account of some of the more interesting peoples of 

at area. The selection was not easy, and perhaps too 


x. Introduction. 

much space has been given to the more backward 
peoples, but the difficulty of dealing in a satisfactory 
manner with the cultured peoples is very great, and the 
reader can find detailed information in more ambitious 
works. It will be noted that the treatment of Europe 
is very different from that accorded to the other 
continents, as it was felt that a statement of racial 
elements in the population would be more generally 
useful than an imperfect summary of national 
characteristics. i 

Those who wish to advance further in this study 
should consult Professor A. H. Keane's " Man, Past and 
Present," "Ethnology," and "The World's Peoples"; 
Dr. J. Deniker's "The Races of Man"; and Professor 
F. Ratzel's "The History of Mankind" (English 

The omission of references is rightly open to serious 
criticism, but it was felt that they would have to be so 
numerous as to unduly increase the size of the book. 
The short Bibliography at the end will, however, indicate 
to the serious student some of the more important books 
to consult. 

Nearly all the special terms employed are explained 
in the text on their first occurrence, but for the 
convenience of the reader a short Glossary has been 

The Races of Man. 


Various methods are employed in the attempt to group 
together different human communities and to distinguish 
between the races of mankind : these may be briefly de- 
scribed as physical, cultural and linguistic. The fact that 
languages may be readily borrowed by one people from 
another, renders linguistics unsatisfactory as a basis for 
classification. It certainly proves the contact of peoples, 
but does not necessarily imply racial affinity. We must 
therefore rank it as a subsidiary method. A classification 
based on culture may be of interest to the sociologist, but 
it is obviously one which can have no prime importance in 
regard to genetic relationship, though it may indicate the 
influence of peoples upon one another. There remain, 
therefore, the physical characters of different peoples 
upon which, as a foundation, a classification of mankind 
can most satisfactorily be erected. 

The physical characters which can be employed in the 
grouping or discrimination of peoples are mainly of two 
kinds ; those which are readily apparent, and those which 
require more minute observation, usually with the assist- 
ance of instruments. The most obvious of the superficial 
characters, such as stature, skin-colour, character of the 
hair, shape of the nose, and the like, have been recognised 
from time immemorial. Practically all peoples look upon 
their own physical characters as constituting the normal 
type, and consequently regard those that differ from 
them as being strange, and even repulsive. This is 


. . • « 

2 The Races of Man 

proved by the frequency with which a people will class 
itself by a name which signifies " men," thereby implying 
that they only are men, while other peoples are designa- 
ted by them under nicknames, names of localities, or of 
some peculiar habit. 

Skin-Colour. — Very obvious is the colour of the skin. 
Among the ancient Egyptians, the artists who decorated 
the royal tombs at Thebes (xix. dynasty) distinguished 
between four races: — (1) the Egyptians, whom they 
painted red; (2) the Asiatics or Semites, who were 
coloured yellow ; (3) the Southerns or Negroes, who were 
naturally painted black; and (4) the Westerns or North- 
erns, white. We ourselves speak loosely of white men, 
yellow men, black men or " niggers," red men, and so 
forth. The coloration of the skin is a character of some 
importance, but we do not know accurately to what 
extent it can in time be influenced by climatic or other 
conditions. In the north of Europe we certainly do find 
a fair-skinned population, but the Greenland Eskimo 
has a brownish-yellow complexion, generally tinged with 
red. The very dark Negro of the equatorial forest does 
not appear to live under conditions very different from 
those of the pale yellow Punan of Borneo, nor are the 
conditions of existence dissimilar for the dark Fijian and 
the relatively fair Samoan. It does not seem possible at 
present to distinguish the relative importance of race and 
environment with regard to pigmentation. Perhaps when 
once fixed, pigmentation is a fairly constant character. 

Hair. — On the whole, the hair appears to be the most 
useful character in classifying the main groups of mankind. 
Practically everywhere outside Europe and parts of 
Northern Asia the hair is black in colour, often with a 
reddish, brownish, or bluish tinge. In Europe we have 
the greatest diversity, not only in colour, but in character. 
The three main varieties of hair are the straight, wavy, 
and so-called woolly. The first is lank hair that usually 

The Basis of Classification 3 

falls straight down, occasionally with a tendency to be- 
come wavy; it is apt to be coarse in texture. The 
second is undulating, or may form a long curve or 
imperfect spiral from one end to the other, or may be 
rolled spirally to form clustering rings or curls a centi- 
metre (f in.) or more in diameter. The third variety is 
characterised by numerous, close, often interlocking, 
spirals 1 — 9 mm. in diameter. These three varieties are 
now termed leiotrichous, cymotrichous, and ulotrichous. 
It must be remembered, however, that all intermediate 
conditions occur between these three types. 

Stature. — A commonly recognised distinction is that 
of stature; but though it is true that there are certain 
peoples who can be described as tall, medium, and 
short, or even as pygmy, the stature is apt to be very 
variable within certain limits among the same people. 
The average human stature appears to be about 1*675 m. 
(5ft. 6in.). Those peoples who are 1*725 m. (5ft. 8in.) or 
more in height are said to be tall; those below 1*625 m. 
(5ft. 4in.) are short, while those who fall below 1*500 m. 
(4ft. 11 in.) are now usually termed pygmies. 

Nose. — A feature that has always attracted attention 
is the nose. It may be prominent or flat, and relatively 
to its length (i.e. from the root to the angle with the lip) 
the wings may be broad (platyrrhine), moderate (mesor- 
rhine), or narrow (leptorrhine). 

We have an interesting example of the employment of 
the above characters as a means of race-discrimination 
in the Vedas, which were composed by the poets of 
the Aryan invaders of Northern India about 1500 B.C. 
The word varna, which is now employed to signify caste, 
is used in the dual number, "two colours," being the 
white of the Aryans and the black of the Dasyus, that is, 
of the Dravidian aborigines, who are elsewhere called 
" noseless/ " black-skinned," " unholy," " excommuni- 
cated ; other texts dwell on their low stature, coarse 

4 The Races of Man 

features, and their voracious appetite. It is hardly an 
exaggeration to say that from these sources there might 
be compiled a fairly accurate anthropological definition 
of certain Dravidian tribes of to-day. 

Face. — The lower part jjj^ the face may project con- 
siderably (progn athous ) — this is what is termed a " low " 
feature, or there may be no projection of the face 
(orthognathous). These characters are dependent on 
the size of thej^ws. A flat and retreating forehead is 
also a " low " feature, but a somewhat bulbous forehead 
such as is characteristic of Negroes does not necessarily 
imply high intellectual ability. A straight .nose, and one 
in which the root is only slightly marked, so that the line 
of the forehead passes gently into that of the nose, 
constitutes the classical nose of Greek statues. As a 
matter of fact, this feature was seized upon and ex- 
aggerated by certain Greek sculptors, the contours of the 
nose and forehead being alike falsified, so as to give 
increased nobility to the expression. The majesty of the 
brow of Zeus, the wielder of the destinies of men, was 
due to an overstepping of human contours, as these in 
their turn, in the dim ages of the past, had passed beyond 
the low outline of the brute. 

Head- Form. — Less obvious is the jshape of the head. 
Looked at from above, some heads are distinctly narrow, 
while others are very broad. The nature of the hair and 
the fashion of dressing it often tend to obscure this, so 
for a satisfactory description recourse must be had to 
measurements. The measurements are rarely used by 
themselves, but are employed to give a ratio of the 
breadth to the length, the latter being taken at. 100. 
Thus those heads in which the ratio of the breadth of 
the skull to its length falls below 75 are termed dolicho- 
cephalic or narrow-headed, those between 75 and 80 
mesaticephalic or medium-headed, those exceeding 80 
brachycephalic or br 

The Basis of Classification 5 


groups are recognised, the dolichocephalic —78, and the 
brachycephalic 78 + . When dealing with the skull only, 
it is better to speak of the cranial index, and to reserve 
the term cephalic index for the head of the living; 
roughly speaking, the cephalic index is two units higher 
than the cranial index. The height of the head is a 
character of some importance ; some heads are high and 
well curved, while others are low and flattened. 

There are many other characters which are employed 
by physical anthropologists which necessitate careful 
measurements on the living or on the skeleton, and the 
observation of certain details of anatomical structure; 
for these the reader is referred to special works dealing 
with physical anthropology. 

Although, as a matter of convenience, the range of 
the variations of any given feature is divided up into 
groups to which definite names are applied, it must be 
clearly understood that these demarcations are perfectly 
arbitrary, and are employed merely to facilitate compari- 
son and classification. Man is a very variable animal, 
and being able to travel long distances, a considerable 
mixture between different peoples has taken place ; hence 
it becomes extremely difficult in some cases to determine 
whether the given modifications from the average type are 
due to the inherent variability of man, to reaction to the 
conditions under which he is living or has recently lived, or 
to actual race-mixture. These considerations necessitate 
caution in forming an opinion concerning the affinities of 
any people, and at the same time they demonstrate the 
extreme difficulty there is in framing a consistent classi- 
fication of mankind. 

Unfortunately there is a lack of uniformity in the 
employment of us such as race tribe, and for the 
minor divisions of a community, nor does it seem possible 


6 The Races of Man 

at the present time to bring all observers on these topics 
into line. It therefore becomes necessary to explain 
briefly the manner in which such terms are employed in 
this book. As to the term race, it really seems impossible 
to frame a satisfactory definition. It is best to confine 
its use as far as possible to the main divisions of mankind 
which have important physical characters in common, 
Thus all woolly-haired peoples (Ulotrichi) may be said to 
belong to one race; but usually the Negrilloes, Bushmen, 
Negroes, Papuans, and others, are spoken of as races. 
The Jews, although not of absolutely pure origin, are 
generally, but from this point of view erroneously, spoken 
of as a race; again there is no such thing as an Bnglish or 
an Irish race. 

A people is a community inhabiting any given area 
independent of race. For example, the Andaman 
Islanders are a people of pure race, while the people of 
Ceylon belong to various races. In some cases, where 
racial mixture is suspected, it is better to employ this 
term rather than "race"; thus it is preferable to speak 
of the Melanesian peoples rather than of the Melanesian 

A tribe may be defined as a group of a simple kind 
occupying a circumscribed area, having a common 
language, common government, and a common action in 

A nation is a complex group which may consist of 
various tribes or groups, speaking different languages, 
but united under a common government for external 
affairs. The constituents of a nation usually, however, 
speak the same language. 

A Classification of Mankind 


If we accept the character of the hair as a basis of 
classification, we may divide mankind into the following 
groups : — i 

Ulotrighi : 


Negritoes. (Andamanese, Semang of the 
Malay Peninsula and Sumatra, Pygmies 
of the Philippines), and Negrilloes of the 
equatorial forests of Africa. 
Short and yellow-skinned : 

Bushmen of South Africa. 
Hottentots of South Africa. 

Short or tall, and dark-skinned : 
Negroes and Bantu of Africa. 
Papuans and Melanesians of the West 
Pacific. * 

CYMOTRiCHi^are divisible into several main divisions 
according to their skin-colour; the great majority are 
dolichocephalic. . 

Dolichocephalic: -whMc/w Imoh\ ■ 

Melanous, or dark group : 

Pre-Dravidians: Veddas of Ceylon; Kadirs, 
Kurumbas, Irulas, and other Jungle 
Tribes of the Deccan ; Sakai of the 
Malay Peninsula and Sumatra; Toalas 
of Celebes ; Australians. 

Dravidians of the Deccan. 

Ethiopians or Hamites of North-East 

v<^ ^ 


i ' u 

8 The Races of Man 

- Intermediate shades: 
I ndo- Afghans. 
Tawny white : 

Mediterraneans of South Europe and North 

Nordics of North Europe. 
Mesaticephalic : w-sdU His* 

Ainu of Japan. 
Brachycephalic : thecal Uj&+2 

Alpines (with Anatolian and Cevenole 
Leiotrichi. The straight-haired groups of mankind 
are mainly confined to Asia and America. 

Brachycephalic : 0^€- !*£<?<?( 

Ural-Altaians : Palaeasiatics, Tungus, Ko- 
reans, Mongols, together with the modified 
Ugrians and Turki; Indo-Chinese: Tibetans, 
Himalayans, Chinese, most of the natives 
of further India and Indo-China, including 
the Proto- Malays. 
Dolichocephalic American Indians: 
Eskimo. "^ 

Palaeo- Amerinds. 


Mesaticephalic or Brachycephalic American 
Indians : '^*<**. 

Patagonians, Southern Amerinds, Central 

Amerinds, North - Western Amerinds, 

Northern Amerinds. 

A linear arrangement, such as is practically unavoidable 

in a book, can very rarely indicate biological affinities; to 

illustrate these a two- or three-dimensional arrangement 

is necessary. Therefore, a tabulation, such as the above, 

A Classification of Mankind 

must not be regarded as representing all the relations 

between certain, groups. 

The Oloti*5chi are divisible as follows: — 
The Pygmy Ulotrichi are : — 

Andamanese : Frizzly black hair with a reddish tinge; 
very dark skin; stature about l*485m. (4ft. lOfin.),* 
with well-proportioned Jsody and small hands; head 
small and Dractfycephalic (index 82)* ; face broad at 
cheekbones; lips full but not everted ; chin small but 
not retreating; nose much sunken at the root but 
straight and small; eyes prominent. Andaman 

Semang: These are closely allied to the Andamanese 
They have crisp woolly, brownish black hair; dark 
chocolate brown skin, approximating to black; 
stature qf/l;49m. (4ft, lOfin.) and are sturdily built; 
head mesaticephatic (index 78-9) ; round face ; full 
lips ; short flattened nose ; widely open eyes. Malay 
Peninsula and East Sumatra. 

Negritoes of the Philippines, or A etas : Woolly black hair, 
sometimes tinged with red. The men often have 
abundant growth on face, chest, and limbs ; skin of a 
dark sooty-brown colour; stature l'474m. (4ft. 10in.), 
the body being slender.and the/arms long; the head 
is large in proportion and mesaticephalic (index 80) ; 
forehead broad and rounded ; jaw and teeth pro- 
jecting; lips thick and the under one everted; nose 
broad at nostrils and sunken at root; eyes deep-set 
and wide apart. 

Negrilloes : Hair very short and woolly, usually of a dark 
rusty brown colour, sometimes very dark; face hair 

* The figures of the stature and cephalic index given in this 
table are averages of males. There is a considerable range in 
most cases, but the data here presented will serve to give a 
fairly correct idea of the raciai types. 

10 The Races of Man 

variable, but the body usually covered with a light, 
downy hair ; skin reddish or yellowish brown, some- 
times very dark; stature from l'378m. to l*452m. 
(4ft. 44-in. .to 4ft. 9^in.) ; sometimes steatopygic :*i_ 
head mesaticephalic (index 79) ; sometimes prog- 
nathic; lips usually thin, and the upper one long; 
nose broad and exceptionally long ; eyes protuberant. 
Equatorial forests of Africa. 
The short, yellow-skinned Ulotrichi are: — 

Bushmen : Short, black, woolly hair, which becomes 
rolled up into little knots; skin yellow; stature 
l'529m. (5ft. Jin.); steatopygia is especially marked 
in women ; hands and feet very small ; very small 
skull, markedly low in crown, dolichocephalic (index 
76) ; straight face with prominent cheekbones and 
bulging forehead ; nose extremely broad, the Bush- 
men being the most platyrrhine of all mankind; no 
lobe to the ear. Now mainly confined to the 
Kalahari desert. 

Hottentots : A cross between Bushmen and Hamites or 
Bantus, in which the characters of the first pre- 
dominate; mongrel peoples have also arisen, mainly 
from Boer- Hottentot parentage. Short, woolly, 
black hair, with tendency to become rolled up into 
little knots ; skin brownish yellow, sometimes tinged 
with grey or red; stature l-604m. » (5ft. 3in.) ; 
tendency to steatopygia; head small and dolicho- 
cephalic (index 74) ; face prognathic, with small chin 
and prominent cheekbones. South-west Africa. 

* Steatopygia is the name given to a large development of 
fatty tissue in the buttocks ; it is characteristic of some of the 
more primitive races of Africa, more especially among the 
Bushmen, but it must not be confounded with the general 
development of fat which occurs among other African peoples. 
Steatopygia also occurred among some of the prehistoric 
cave-dwellers of France. 

A Classification of Mankind 11 

The short or tall, dark-skinned Ulotrichi are: — 
Negroes. The true Negroes are divisible into two main 
stocks : — 

Western Sudanese or Nigritian : Hair frizzly; dark 
brown or black skin; stature 1*73 m. (5ft. 8in.); 
burly, short-legged and long-armed; dolichoce- 
phalic (index 74-75); frequently prognathous; 
forehead often bulging ; thick, and often everted 
lips; platyrrhine. Guinea Coast and, originally, 
tropical Africa. ' 
Eastern Sudanese or Nilotic Negroes : Very dark skin, 
sometimes with reddish tinge; tall and slim, 
with long legs ; narrow, elongated head ; retreat- 
ing forehead ; everted lips. Sudan and upper 
Nile valley. 
Bantu : The numerous peoples of Central and Southern 
Africa who speak Bantu languages present a great 
variety of types. They are a Negro people mixed 
with Hamitic and other elements. Hair uniformly 
of the ordinary Negro type; stature 1*64-1*715 m. 
(5ft 4-|-7^-in.) ; dolichocephalic — there is a brachioce- 
phalic element with lower stature, 1-594 m. (5ft. 2in.); 
fatty deposits are of frequent occurence, more fre- 
quently among the women ; usually skin less dark, 
stature lower, head less elongated, prognathism less 
marked, forehead flatter, nose generally more promi- 
nent and narrower than in the true Negroes. Africa, 
south of 4 deg. N. Lat., but including the Cameroons 
and excluding the Great Rift Valley plateau and the 
extreme south-west of Africa. 
Papuans : Black, woolly hair, often of considerable 
length; dark chocolate skin; usually of medium 
stature, but variable ; dolichocephalic (index 73) ; 
prognathous; platyrrhine, nose sometimes aquiline. 
New Guinea, and originally throughout Melanesia, 
Australia and Tasmania. 

12 The Races of Man 

Melanesians : More variable than Papuans, and have 
sometimes curly, and even wavy hair (doubtless due 
to racial mixture) ; skin often lighter than Papuans, 
being chocolate or occasionally copper-coloured; 
stature of men ranges from 1\ 0-1*78 m. (4ft. 11 in. to 
5ft. 10in.), the predominating heights are from 1*56 m. 
(5ft. liin.) to 1-6 m. (5ft. 3in.) ; cephalic index 67-85, 
but dolichocephaly prevails generally, though brachy- 
• cephaly may locally predominate ; nose platyrrhine, 
sometimes aquiline, sometimes straight or flattened. 
Bismarck Archipelago to New Caledonia, Fiji, some 
parts of New. Guinea. 
The Cyreiotnichi are divisible into several main 

groups, according to their skin colour ; the great majority 

are dolichocephalic. 

Dolichocephalic Cymotrichi, with dark brown to nearly 

black skin are : — 

Veddas : These aboriginals of Ceylon are perhaps the 
most primitive survivals of a Pre-Dravidian race. 
Their hair is long, black, coarse, wavy or curly; skin 
dark brown; stature l*533m. (5ft. Jin.); smallest 
human skull, extremely dolichocephalic (index 70-5); 
orthognathic, broad face, with thin lips and poin 
chin; forehead slightly retreating, with brow arches 
pointed; nose depressed at root, almost platyrrhine. 

Jungle Tribes of the Deccan : There are various jungle 
tribes in the Deccan, such as the Kadirs, Kurumbas, 
and [rulas, which are characterised by short stature, 
generally about 1*601 m. (5ft. Sin.) or less, dolicho- 
cephaly, and marked platyrrhiny. 

Sakai : Perhaps belonging here are the Sakai, jungle 
tribes of the Malay Peninsula and East Sumatra. 
Hair long, wavy or curly, black with reddish tinge; 
skin yellowish brown to dark brown; stature l*504m. 
(4ft. 11^-in.); mesaticephalic (index 78;; orthog- 
nathous; nose mesorrhine, bordering on platyrrhine. 

A Classification of Mankind 13 

These appear to have mixed with other peoples, but 
are now regarded as mainly of Pre-Dravidian origin. 

Toala : Hair very wavy and even curly; skin darkish 
brown; stature l-575m. (5ft. 2in.) ; they have low 
brachycephaly (index 82) ; face somewhat short ; 
thick lips ; strongly platyrrhine nose. South-west 
peninsula of Celebes. These people seem to be 
undoubtedly of Pre-Dravidian origin, though some 
mixture has since taken place. 

Australians : A fairly uniform people, probably of mainly 
Pre-Dravidian stock. Curly hair; skin dark 
chocolate brown; stature l-67m. (5ft. 5|in.); doli- 
chocephalic (index 72); prognathous; platyrrhine. 
Some of the Australians, at any rate, appear to have 
mixed with a Papuan population that preceded them 
in Australia. 

Dravidians : This is a general term for the short dark 
peoples of the Deccan. The hair is plentiful, with 
an occasional tendency to curl ; stature usually 
l-626m. (5ft. 4in.); dolichocephalic (index 74-76); 
typically mesorrhine. Some Dravidians exhibit 
traces of a Pre-Dravidian strain. 

Ethiopians or Hamitcs of North- East Africa include the 
Ancient and Modern Egyptians (in part), Beja, Galla, 
Somali, Abyssinians (with Arab mixture) ; mixed 
with Negroes are the Zandeh (Niarn Niam), Fulah, 
Masai, etc. Perhaps this is a very ancient admixture 
of Semite with Negro. Hair usually frizzly; red- 
brown skin ; stature 1-67-1 -708 m. (5ft. 5fin.-7£in.) ; 
mesaticephalic (index 75-78) ; face elongated ; not 
prognathous; lips thin or slightly turned; nose 
usually prominent, leptorrhine to mesorrhine. 
Dolichocephalic Cymotrichi of intermediate shades 
are : — 

Indo- Afghans : Dark brunets with a complexion of a 
very light transparent brown ; stature moderate, 

14 *oes of Man 

^ in certain Rajputs to 1*748 m. (5ft. 8f in.); 
^ephalic ; face long; features regular; nose 
-light or convex, narrow and finely cut. 
utiesians : Throughout the East Indian Archipelago 
and extending into further India is a race with undu- 
lating black hair, often tinged with red; tawny skin, 
often rather light; low stature of 1-54-1.57 m. (5frT 
J-lJin.) ; mesaticephalic head (index 76-78), probably i 
originally dolichocephalic; cheekbones sometimes 
projecting; nose often flattened, sometimes concave. 
It is difficult to isolate this Indonesian type as it has 
almost everywhere been mixed with a brachycephalic 
Proto-Malay stock, but the M units of Borneo (cranial 
index 73) are probably typical. 

Polynesians : These may be regarded as a mixed variety 
of the Indonesian race which has greatly increased 
in stature, 1-72 m. (5ft. 7fin.); dolichocephaly and 
mesaticephaly are widely spread in Polynesia, but 
there are brachycephalic centres in Tonga, the 
Marquesas and the Hawaiian Islands; the broaden- 
ing of the head is probably due to an early mixture 
with a Proto-Malay stock; nose prominent, some- 
times convex. This variety extends from Hawaii to 
New Zealand, and from Samoa to Easter Island. 
Of tawny white complexion are: — ■ 

Semites : Jet-black hair ; stature 1-625- 1*65 m. (5ft. 4-5in.) 
dolichocephalic (index 70) ; elongated face, fine 
regular features ; straight or aquiline nose ; the most 
pure type, with a narrow straight nose, is met with 
among the Arabs of South Arabia. The Jews are a 
mixed people who may have acquired their so-called 
"Jewish nose" from the Assyrioids or Hittites; the 
latter are now probably represented by the Armen- 
ians. Their original home was in South-Western 
Asia, more especially in Arabia ; but they have 
wandered afar, mainly into North Africa. 

. ■> 

Plate HI.} 


[Races of Man, p. 14. 

< r 

Plate IV.) 


Races of Man, p .15 

A Classification of Mankind 15 

Mediterraneans : Hair brown or black, with fair represen- 
tatives about the Atlas Mountains ; stature about 
1*63 m. (5ft. 4Jin.); dolichocephalic (index 72-76); 
face oval; nose leptorrhine or mesorrhine; eyes 
generally very dark. The Ancient Egyptians (in 
part), the Libyans, Iberians, Liguriansand Pelasgians, 
and the dolichocephalic (cranial index 73-74), neo- 
lithic inhabitants of Western Europe and the British 
Islands belonged to this stock. 'Their present 
distribution is mainly round the shores of the 
The fairest of all peoples are : — 
Nordics or " Teutonic Race " : Yellow, very light brown, 
or reddish hair, and blue or grey eyes ; reddish-white 
complexion; tall, with stature of l'73m. (5ft. 8in.) ; 
mesaticephalic (index 76-79 in the living) ; long face ; 
narrow aquiline nose. Their original home was 
North Europe. 
Mesaticephalic Cymotrichi : 
Ainu : The indigenous population of Japan consisted of 
the Ainu, who are characterised by a great profusion 
of black wavy hair; short, thick-set; mesaticephalic 
(index 77*8) ; orthognathous, with broad face; short, 
fairly broad nose ; large horizontal eyes, Mongolian 
fold usually absent. Balz regards them as more or 
less related to the Alpine or " Celto-Slavic " Race, 
but Deniker classes them as Palaeasiatics, and Keane 
places them, along with Semites and Dravidians, in 
the Homo Mediterranensis group of the "Caucasic 
The Brachycephalic Cymotrichi may be conveniently 
included under the term Alpines or "Alpine Race.'" 
This race consists of a short and a tall variety. The 
race occurs mainly in the plateaus and mountains that 
extend from the Himalayas, through Asia Minor, the 
Balkan Peninsula to Central France and Brittany, 

16 The Races of Man 

Cevenoie : This name may be applied to the short, thick- 
set variety which mainly occurs in Europe. Light 
chestnut or dark hair; hazel grey eyes; dull white 
skin; stature 1*63-1 '64m. (oft. 4-4^-in.); cephalic 
index .85-87; broad face; rather broad heavy nose. 

Dinaric or Adriatic: A tall variety, stature l , 68-l , 72m. 
(5ft. 6-7fin.), which is probably an offshoot from 
the Anatolian. 

Anatolian or Armenian'. The former name may be given 
to the tall variety of Asia Minor. The Armenians 
appear to be the modified representatives of an 
ancient Hittite stock. They are characterised by a 
tawny white skin; stature \*§3-\ m GQm. (5ft. 4J- 
6^-in.) ; the body is heavy, with a tendency to 
corpulency; brachycephalic head, which is very flat 
behind (index 85-87) ; aquiline nose with a depressed 

,../ -tip anci large wings is very characteristic. 

Leiotrichi : The straight-haired groups of mankind, 
who are also mainly brachycephalic, are chiefly 
confined to Asia and America. 

Palaasiatics or Eastern Siberians : The head is often 
mesaticephalic ; but in most of their features, flat 
face, prominent cheek bones, oblique eyes, yellowish 
brown colour, low stature, long, lank hair and sparse 
beard, they resemble other Siberian groups. They 
inhabit the north-east corner of Asia, and include the 
Yukaghirs, Koryaks, Chukchis, Kamchadales and 
Gilyaks; the latter appear to have mixed with the 
Ainu, which would account for the more regular 
features and beards of some of them. 

Tungus: The Tungus group is subject to considerable 
variation. The northern members resemble in the 
main the Palasasiatics — for example, the Tungus, 
Orochons, Lamuts and Gold. The Manchus are 
taller, slighter, and with a tendency towards mesati- 

A Classification of Mankind 17 

Koreans: The modification of the Tungus type exhibited 
in the Manchus is intensified in the Koreans, who 
are tall and slender, with a cephalic index of 82; 
long, narrow, and frequently prognathous face; 
narrow aquiline nose ; eyes with Mongolian fold ; 
long, thin beard. 

Mongols: The skin varies in colour from pale yellowish 
to yellowish brown ; black straight hair, little hair 
on face or body; stature l*635m. (5ft. 3Jin.); 
brachycephalic (index 82-84) with a low vault; 
cheekbones prominent; flattened face, Mongolian 
eyes. Typical Mongols are the Sharras, of whom 
.the Khalkas, who inhabit the whole Gobi area, are 
the most important group. The Kalmuks live to 
the west of the Khalka country, mainly in Zungaria 
and the northern part of Kashgaria ; an outlier also 
occurs north-west of the Caspian. The Buryats to 
the north are somewhat mixed, and extend east and 
west of the southern half of Lake Baikal. 

Turki: Yellowish white complexion, some with much 
hair on the face, medium stature 1*675 m. (5ft. 6in.), 
with a tendency to obesity ; a brachycephalic high 
head (index 85-87) ; elongated oval face ; straight, 
somewhat prominent nose; eyes not Mongolian. 
The eastern group comprises the Yakuts of the Lena 
basin and certain so-called Tatars; the central 
group contains the Kirghiz, Kazaks, Uzbegs, etc. of 
Russian Turkistan ; the western is composed mainly 
of the Turkomans, east of the Caspian, and of the 
Osmanli in Asia Minor and Turkey. To this group 
belonged the Ughuz and the dreaded Uighurs, who 
once founded a civilised state in Northern Kashgaria 
(Chinese Turkistan). 

Ugrians: Generally speaking, the Ugrians have a yellow- 
ish white skin ; the hair may be black or brown ; 
they are generally of short stature ; mesaticephalic 

18 The Races of Man 

or brachycephalic; projecting cheek bones; straight 
or concave nose. Keane employs the terms 
Ugrian Finns or Ugro-Finns; and Deniker calls the 
Asiatic tribes, Yeniseians or Tubas. The peoples of 
Western Siberia mainly belong to this group, such as 
the Ostyaks, Tuba, Voguls, Samoyads; the Votyaks 
and Cheremiss have penetrated into Russia, and the 
Lapps into Northern Scandinavia. The latter have 
a stature of 1*53 m. (5ft. Jin.), a cephalic index of 
87, with a correspondingly broad face, prominent 
cheek bones, dark brown hair, and a yellowish white 
skin,; like most Ugrians they have an ungainly figure. 
Great modifications have taken place in some of the 
peoples, who, belonging to this stock, have migrated 
into Europe, such as the Finns, Esthonians, Livo- 
nians, Buigars, Magyars, and others. 

Indo-Chinese, Pareceans or Southern Mongols: Hair black 
and lank, little hair on the face ; skin colour varies 
from yellowish in the north to olive and coppery- 
brown in the south ; stature varies a good deal, but 
is generally short, averaging about 1*6 m. (5ft. 3in.) ; 
often thick set ; brachycephalic (index 80-85) ; fre- 
quently prognathic; nose short and broad; eyes 
often very oblique, with Mongolian fold. Most of 
the peoples of this group are considerably mixed 
with other races ; they comprise the Tibetans, 
Himalayans, Chinese proper, and the bulk of the 
populations of further India and Indo-China. Those 
members who spread into the East Indian Archipel- 
ago are often called Oceanic Mongols, but a better 
term is Proto-Malays; and it is from these the true 
Malay is derived. 
Dolichocephalic American Indians: — 

Eskimo : The pure Eskimo are a very distinct group, 
with a brownish or reddish-yellow complexion ; 
stature of F575m. (5ft. 2in.) ; they are dolichoce- 

A Classification op Mankind 19 

phalic (index 71-72), with a high vault; they have a 
broad face, projecting cheek bones ; and eyes 
straigttt and black. 

Palceo- Amerinds: Deniker recognises a short dolichoce- 
phalic South American Palaso-American type with 
wavy or even curly hair which is still recognisable in 
the mesaticephals. The cranial index of the Boto- 
cudos is 73*9. 
Mesaticephalic or Brachycephalic American Indians: — 

Patagonians : The brachycephalic Patagonians (index 85) 
are of a brown colour ; tall stature averaging 1-73- 
1*83 m. (5ft. 8in.-6ft.); and square face. Traces of 
this stock are found in Central South America. 

Southern Amerinds: Mesaticephalic or brachycephalic; 
with yellow skin, smooth body; straight or concave 
nose ; and short stature. 

Central Amerinds : Brachycephalic, with brownish-yellow 
or brown skin ; low stature ; and straight or aquiline 

North- Western Amerinds of the Pacific slope: Brachyce- 
phalic (index of 82-85) ; they have usually a rounded 
face; and stature of l*66-l , 69m. (5ft 5Jin.-6iin.). 

Northern Amerinds of the Atlantic slope : Mesaticephalic; 
with warm yellow skin ; oval face ; straight or 
aquiline nose; and stature of 1-68-1-75 m. (5ft. 6-9in.). 

20 The Races of Man 



Oceania comprises Australia, Melanesia, Polynesia 
and Micronesia. 

It is generally believed that Australia was originally 
inhabited, or at all events in parts, by Papuans or Negri- 
toes, or more probably by a stock intermediate between 
them, who wandered on foot to the extreme south of 
that continent. When Bass' Strait was formed, those 
who were cut off from the mainland formed the ancestors 
of the Tasmanians, who never advanced beyond an early 
stage of stone-age culture. Later, a Pre-Dravidian 
race migrated into Australia, and over-ran the continent 
and absorbed the sparse aboriginal population. Since 
then they have practically remained isolated from the 
rest of the world. Their languages bear no relation to 
the Austronesian or Oceanic linguistic family. 

Melanesia includes New Guinea and the neighbouring 
islands, and the chain of archipelagoes that extends n' i 
the Admiralties to New Caledonia, including Fiji. For 
the sake of clearness these will be termed the Melanesia n 
Archipelago. The inhabitants of this area are sometimes 
spoken of as Oceanic Negroes. The primitive stock 
appears to have been a very dark coloured and invariably 
woolly-haired people, to whom the name Papuans can 
perhaps be best applied. They form the majority of the 
inhabitants of New Guinea and the basis of the popula- 
tions of the Melanesian Archipelago. The latter peoples 
speak a language which is a primitive form of the Austric 
linguistic family, whereas the Papuan languages belong 

Distribution of Races and Peoples 21 

to a different family. Certain physical traits and cultural 
developments also indicate that foreign influences have 
modified the original stock. The view now commonly 
held is that the Melanesian Archipelago was originally 
inhabited by Papuans, and perhaps also by Negritoes, 
and that the Proto-Polynesians in their migration from 
the East Indian Archipelago to Polynesia passed through 
this region and imposed their speech on the population 
and otherwise modified it. In later times parts of Mel- 
anesia have been directly influenced by movements from 
Polynesia. The result of these supposed influences has 
been to form the Melanesian peoples as they exist to-day. 
Settlements from the Melanesian Archipelago occur 
along the greater part of the coast of South-east New 

The Polynesians are a mixed people. Their original 
home was perhaps somewhere in Eastern India, whence, 
shortly before our era, they migrated to the East Indian 
Archipelago, where we may speak of them as Indonesians. 
The Proto-Malays were about this time pressing down 
south from the mainland of Asia, and eventually a mixed 
population seems to have gone further east. Probably 
the Proto-Polynesians, as they may now be termed, 
settled for some time in the northern portion of the 
Melanesian Archipelago, where some mixture took place. 
Perhaps about 450 A.D. they began to adventure into the 
Pacific. Samoa was certainly colonised in 600 A.D., and 
Hawaii first settled in 650 A.D. Voyages from the 
south to Hawaii ceased in 1325 A.D. New Zealand was 
visited in 850 A.D., but "the fleet" did not arrive till 
1350 A.D. The darker skinned and more curly haired 
peoples who occur in some of the eastern Polynesian 
islands may be the remains of a half-breed class of low 
rank due to the sojourn in Melanesia. The bulk of the 
Polynesians, however, show very little trace of this 

22 The Races of Man 

The Micronesians have much the same origin as the 
Polynesians, but many exhibit more direct traces of 
Asiatic influence. 

A ustralians. 

The Australians can rarely depend on regular supplies 
of food. They feed on flesh, fish, grubs, insects and wild 
vegetable food. Cultivation of the soil is unknown, 
except that on the west coast the natives invariably 
re-insert the head of the wild yams they have dug up so 
as to be sure of a future crop. The cultivation of purs- 
lane seems to be a well-established fact. The Australians 
are expert hunters and trackers, and make use of in- 
genious devices for catching fish and land animals. The 
game caught by a man has to be shared with others 
according to rule. There are many food taboos. Canni- 
balism is widely spread, but human flesh is nowhere a 
regular article of food. There are no domesticable 
animals except the introduced dingo. Clothing of every 
description, apart from ornament, is rarely worn ; but in 
the south skin cloaks are commonly used, and occasionally 
fur aprons. Scarification of the body is very frequent, 
and prominent cicatrices are often made. Dwellings are 
usually of the simplest character, being breakwinds or 
slight huts ; but in places permanent huts are constructed 
of boughs covered with bark and grass, and sometimes 
coated with clay. Implements are made of shell, bone, 
wood and stone. Spears and wooden clubs are universal ; 
many of the spears are thrown by hand, but very gener- 
ally some are projected by means of a spear-thrower. 
The use of the boomerang is nearly universal ; the variety 
that returns when it is thrown is in most tribes only a 
plaything; it is, however, used for throwing at birds. 
There are no bows and arrows. Pottery is unknown. 
Rafts are made of one or more logs, and the commonest 
form of canoe is that made of a single sheet of bark. 

The Australians are divided into tribes of varying size, 

Distribution of Races and Peoples 23 

who occupy a certain tract of hunting ground in common, 
speak dialects of the same language, and acknowledge a 
common relatedness to each other which they deny to 
all other tribes. Tribes are divided into well-defined 
local groups, each having rights over a definite portion of 
the common country, and these are sub-divided until the 
smallest unit consists of a few people of the same blood 
under the leadership of one of the ablest elder men. The 
grouping of individuals under the names of plants, 
animals, or various objects is practically universal ; these 
are termed totem septs, clans, or kins. The members 
commonly believe themselves to be actually descended 
from, or related to, their totem, and all members are 
regarded as brethren, though they may belong to differ- 
ent local communities or tribes. The totem is rarely 
injured, killed or eaten, and members of the totem sept 
must help and never injure each other. Typically each 
totem sept is exogamous. Usually the totem septs of a 
tribe are grouped into two exogamous moieties, frequent- 
ly termed phratries, each of which may be divided into 
two or four exogamous classes. Descent in the classes is 
indirect matrilineal or indirect patrilineal, that is, while 
the child still belongs to the mother's or the father's 
moiety (as the case may be) it is assigned to the class of 
that society to which the mother or the father does not 
belong; but the grandchildren belong to the class of the 
grandmother or grandfather. Thus descent in an indirect 
matrilineal group is as follows : — 

Moiety. Man of marr ; es Woman of Their children are 
class class. members of class 

a = 

a = 













24 The Race; of Man 

The classificatory system of relationship terms prevails. 
Descent is reckoned through the mother in some tribes 
and through the father in others. The local group has 
perpetual succession through males. 

Among many tribes there are two kinds of marital 
relation, but in every case the marriage can only take 
place between the members of certain groups. Thus in 
most tribes all the women are either actual or potential 
wives, or sisters of the men of their own tribe. A person 
of marriageable age may be allocated to a special spouse, 
and to a varying number of accessory spouses for varying 
periods. In other tribes individual marriage occurs with 
an increasing limitation of the rights of other members 
Df the community. 

Each totem and local group has its head man, within 
which area alone he exercises power The head men 
constitute the council of the tribe, and generally one is 

Beneficent and malevolent magic are universally 
practised. Besides its social side totemism has its 
religious aspect. An emotional relation often exists 
between the members of the totem sept and the totem, 
and in some cases the totem warns or protects its human 
kinsmen. Certain tribes perform elaborate ceremonies, 
which are designed to render the totem prolific, or to 
insure its abundance. Most tribes believe in mythical 
beings, and a belief in a vague supreme being or elder in 
the sky appears to be widely spread 

Papuans and Melanesians. 

The Melanesians are a noisy, excitable, demonstrative, 
affectionate, cheery, passionate people. They could 
not be hunters everywhere, as in most islands there is 
no game, nor could they be pastors anywhere, as there are 
no cattle; the only resources are fishing and agriculture. 
In New Guinea and the West Solomons the sago palm is 

Distribution of Races and Peoples 25 

of great importance. Coco-nut palms grow mainly on 
the shore in most islands. The main crops are various 
kinds of bananas, numerous kinds of yams, bread-fruit, 
taro (caladium) and sweet potatoes. 

The men go nude in some of the wilder parts, but 
mostly they wear a perineal band, which may be broad 
or merely a string. Almost everywhere the women 
wear a longer or shorter petticoat of finely shredded 
leaves. The darker coloured natives decorate their skin 
by cicatrices and cheloids. True tattooing is employed 
sporadically. Every portion of the body is decorated in 
various ways with shells, teeth, feathers, leaves, flowers, 
and other objects, and bands are plaited to ornament the 
neck, trunk, and limbs. Especially characteristic of 
Melanesia are shell necklaces, which constitute a kind of 
currency, and artificially deformed boars' tusks. 

The typical Melanesian house has a roof of bamboo 
bent over a ridge pole which is supported by two main 
posts, very low side walls, and the ends filled in with 
bamboo screens. Pile dwellings are found in New 
Britain, some of the Solomons, and in New Guinea, 
where they are sometimes in the sea. 

Bows and arrows occur in New Guinea, except in the 
south-east end, and generally in the archipelago. Spears 
are used in the greater part of New Guinea and the 
northern archipelago. Stone-headed clubs are found in 
New Guinea and New Hebrides, wooden clubs are 
universal. Slings are generally distributed in the 
archipelago and in parts of New Guinea. Rafts and 
light canoes occur in the Solomons, but the hollow tree 
trunk with plank gunwhale is general in Melanesia. 

Food is cooked in the earth-oven everywhere ; stone- 
boiling is very widely known, boiling in clay pots is local, 
and sometimes large shells are employed for boiling. 
Wooden vessels for preparing and cooking food are 
commonly distributed. Pottery is made at a few 

26 The Races of Man 

places in New Guinea, and sporadically in the 

A division of the community into two exogamous 
groups is very widely spread, no intermarriage being 
permitted within the group. Mother-right is very preva- 
lent, descent and inheritance being counted on the 
mother's side, and a man's property descends to his 
sister's children ; but the mother is in no way the head 
of the family; the house is the father's, the garden may 
be his, the rule and government are his, though the 
maternal uncle sometimes has more authority than the 
father. The transition to father-right has definitely 
occurred in various places, and is taking place elsewhere; 
thus, in some of the New Hebrides the father has to buy 
off the rights of his wife's relations or his sister's children. 
The classificatory system of relationship-terms very 
generally prevails. Totemism has marked socialising 
effects, as totemic solidarity takes precedence of all other 
considerations. It occurs in some parts of Southern 
New Guinea, Fiji, and other islands in the archipelago, 
where it is becoming obsolete. Almost everywhere in a 
village there is one building (often two, sometimes 
more) of a public character where men eat and spend 
their time, in these young men sleep, and strangers are 
entertained ; in the Solomons these are also canoe-houses. 
Frequently they contain images; women are excluded 
from them. In the Banks Islands and New T Hebrides 
there are numerous clubs, the members of which are of 
many strictly marked grades, promotion being by pay- 
ment ; each rank has its insignia, sometimes human 
effigies, which are usually but wrongly spoken of as 
" idols." Other socialising factors are feasts, dances, 
markets, and money. 

Probably everywhere public affairs are regulated by 
discussion among the old or important men; the more 
primitive the society the more important this is. Chiefs 

Distribution of Races and Peoples 27 

exist everywhere, though with variable powers, which / 
mainly depend upon their own character, but in many 
places their influence is attributed to their mana. 
Hereditary chieftainship in the direct line rarely occurs, 
though it is often retained in the family. Every village 
has its own chief who alone rules, but weaker, chiefs join 
in offensive and defensive alliances, and powerful chiefs 
sometimes force weaker ones into vassalship. The power 
of secret societies tends to obscure that of the chiefs. 
Practically no organisation exists for redressing wrong or 
punishing the guilty, hence private quarrels are personal 
affairs and public opinion stops them only when they 
become acute. The growth of the power of secret 
societies forms a means for the coercion and chastise- 
ment of objectionable persons, but they are often 
terrorising and black-mailing institutions. They occur 
in New Guinea (except the south-east peninsula) and 
New Britain, and from Torres Islands to New Caledonia, 
and with them are frequently associated awesome 
ceremonies with masked performers and implements 
that produce weird sounds. 

Important secret initiation ceremonies for lads take 
place in the bush or in special houses in various parts of 
New Guinea, New Britain, some of the Solomons, and 
Malekula. Magical practices occur everywhere for the 
gaining of benefits, plenteous crops, good fishing, fine 
weather, rain, success in love, and the procuring of 
children. Harmful magic for producing sickness and 
death is universal. 

From the Solomons to the New Hebrides (and perhaps 
elsewhere) the native mind is entirely possessed by belief 
in a supernatural power or influence, called almost 
universally mana. This is what works to effect everything 
which is beyond the ordinary power of man or outside 
the common processes of nature ; but this power, though 
in itself impersonal, is always connected with some 

28 The Races of Man 

person who directs it; all spirits have it, ghosts generally, 
and some men (Codrington). Animism does not exist; 
the sea or forest does not possess its own soul, but is 
haunted by spirit or ghost ; Animatism, or intrinsic life 
in inanimate objects, does occur in some places. A 
more or less developed ancestor cult is universally 
distributed. Human beings may become beneficent or 
maleficent ghosts, but not every ghost becomes an 
object of regard. The ghost who is to be worshipped is 
the spirit of a man who in his lifetime had mana. Hero 
cult occurs in Torres Straits. Good or evil spirits 
apparently independent of ancestors are found practically 
everywhere. In the Solomons more attention is paid to 
ghosts with a greater development of sacrifice, offerings 
of food being burnt as well as eaten (associated with 
these is an advance in the arts of life). In the southern 
groups more attention is paid to the spirits; food, and 
more especially money, is offered to them, but not burnt 
or eaten, and generally offered at stones sacred to 
spirits. There are no priests, but a man who knows how 
to perform magic or approach an object of worship 
sometimes sacrifices for all. There are no " idols." 
Everywhere life after death is believed in. 


The Polynesians are cheerful, dignified and polite, and 
more imaginative and intelligent but more dissolute than 
the Melanesians. They are very cleanly in their habits 
and neat and orderly. 

Wherever possible they are agriculturists, growing 
yams, sweet potatoes, and taro. Coco-nut, bread-fruit, 
and bananas form the staple food in many islands. Can- 
nibalism was prevalent in Polynesia ; it was resorted to 
sometimes for purposes of revenge, sometimes it had a 
magical significance. Human flesh appears to have been 
eaten simply for food in New Zealand and other places. 

Plate II.] 


[Races of Man, p. 2 i. 

Distribution of Races and Peoples 29 

The men formerly wore an adequate garment of bark cloth 
(tapa), and the women an ample petticoat made of 
native cloth or of leaves split and coarsely plaited. 
Ornaments are more sparingly worn than in Melanesia, 
with the exception of flowers. The houses are well 
built, usually with thatched walls and roof, and are oval 
or oblong in form. The bow and arrow is unknown as a 
weapon; short spears, slings, and wooden clubs are used, 
but no shields. Fishing is everywhere resorted to, and 
fish-hooks are made in great variety. Pottery was 
made only in the Tonga and Easter Islands. Mat-making 
and basketry are carried to a fine art, as is the making of 
tapa. The old feather work attained its greatest excel- 
lence in Hawaii. Large sailing double canoes were 
formerly in use, and single canoes with an outrigger are 
still made. 

All through Polynesia the community is divided into 
nobles or chiefs, freemen and slaves, which divisions are 
by reason of taboo as sharp as those of caste. They fall 
into those which participate in the divine and those 
which are wholly excluded from it. Women have a high 
position, and men do their fair share of work. Poh T gyny 
was universal, being limited only by the wealth of the 
husband or the numerical preponderance of the men. 
The husband can take nothing of his wife's; when he 
dies she retains only what he has given her, his brother 
being the heir. Mother-right was universal, but father- 
right has begun in places, especially in the families of 
chiefs. Children inherit their mother's rank and 

Usually the priests gained considerable influence, and 
there were numerous gods. In Samoa and Tonga the 
primitive gods were associated with animals, and some- 
times entered their bodies. Excluding Samoa, gods 
were worshipped by " idols" which were not "gods" but 
" god-boxes " ; ancestors were also deified. The system 


30 The Races of Man 

of taboo was carried to a great excess in many islands. 
Taboo is a Polynesian word and is said to mean strongly 
marked. Things holy and things unclean are alike taboo. 
Tabooed persons render everything they touch taboo ; 
its operation is always mechanical, and the intentions of 
the taboo-breaker have no effect upon the action of the 

Distribution of Races and Peoples 31 


Africa proper begins south of Sahara. The northern 
desert zone and the Mediterranean area are the home of 
the horse. The camel is the typical domestic animal of 
the desert zone. At the base of the northern slopes of 
the plateau spiny shrubs give pasturage for goats. 
Further south the greater rainfall gives rise to a vigorous 
flora, and cows graze on the luxuriant grass; here, too, 
the natives grow durra (sorghum) ; Eleusine is grown in 
the drier region north of the Welle. The increased rain- 
fall of West and Central Africa permits the growth of 
dense forests ; the banana is the chief food plant, and in 
Uganda it is the staple food. The imported manioc 
(cassava or tapioca) is grown in West Central Africa and 
south of the Congo and north of the Zambezi. Where 
there is sufficient moisture on the plateaus of South 
Africa, scattered trees constitute a savanna (t>ush-veld), 
elsewhere there is only grass (grass or high veld) except 
to the west, where steppes culminate in the Kalahari 
Desert, and it is into this inhospitable country that the 
Bushman has mainly retreated. 

There is some evidence that at a very'early time the 
Bushmen occupied the hunting grounds of tropical East 
Africa, perhaps even to the confines of Abyssinia. They 
gradually passed southwards, keeping along the more 
open grass lands of the eastern mountainous zone, where 
they could still preserve their hunting method of life, 
until, when history dawned on the scene, they roamed 
over most of the territory south of the Zambezi. 

Culturally, as well as physically, the Hottentots may 
be regarded as a blend of two stocks. They combined 

32 The Races of Man 

the cattle-rearing habits of the Hamites with the 
aversion from tillage of the soil characteristic of the 
hunter; they became nomadic herders, who were 
stronger than the Bushmen, but who themselves could 
not withstand the Bantu when they came in contact 
with them, and they too were driven to less favourable 

The Hottentot migration from the eastern mountainous 
zone took place much later than that of the Bushmen, 
and it seems to have been due mainly to the pressure 
from behind of the waxing Bantu peoples. These 
pastoral nomads took a south-westerly course across the 
savanna country south of lake Tanganyika, and worked 
their way down the west coast and along the southern 
shore of the continent. What is now Cape Colony was 
inhabited solely by Bushmen and Hottentots at the time 
of the arrival of the Europeans. As the latter expanded 
they drove the aborigines before them, but in the 
meantime mongrel peoples had arisen, mainly of Boer- 
Hottentot parentage, who also were forced to migrate. 
Those of the Cape Hottentots, who were not exter- 
minated or enslaved, drifted north and found in 
Bushmanland an asylum from their pursuers. 

The Negril'.oes, who primitively were probably related 
to the Bushmen, appear always to have occupied the 
tropical forests of Africa. Their local variability indicates 
a Negro mixture. 

The home of the Negro appears to have been the 
Sudan and most of the tropical area, where he practised 
agriculture and became a great trader. That branch of 
the true Negro stock which spake the mother-tongue of 
the Bantu languages some 3,000 years ago (according to 
Sir Harry Johnston's estimate) spread over the area of 
what is now Uganda and British Bast Africa. In the 
forest region these people probably mixed with Negrilloes, 
and possibly with the most northerly representatives of 

Distribution of Races and Peoples 33 

the Bushmen in the high lands to the east. Here also 
they came into contact with the Hamitic peoples coming 
down from the north, and their amalgamation constituted 
a new breed of Negro — the Bantu. 

The Bantu are cattle-rearers who practise agriculture. 
A factor of great importance in their evolution is to be 
found in the great diversity of climate and soil in 
Equatorial East Africa. It is a country of small 
plateaus separated by gorges, or low-lying lands. The 
small plateaus are suitable for pasturage, but their extent 
is limited; thus they fell to the lot of the more vigorous 
people, while the conquered had to content themselves 
with low country, and were obliged to hunt or cultivate 
the land. In these healthy highlands the people 
multiplied, and migration became necessary; the stronger 
and better-organised groups retained their flocks and 
migrated in a southerly direction, keeping to the 
savannas and open country, the line of least resistance 
being indicated by the relative social feebleness of the 
peoples to the south. In the small plateaus a nomadic 
life is impossible for the herders, there being at most a 
seasonal change of pasturage. This prevents the posses- 
sion of large herds and necessitates a certain amount of 
tillage ; further, it would seem that this mode of life tends 
to develop military organisation and a tribal system. 

The north-east corner of Africa, from Egypt to 
Somaliland, is the home of the Hamites. Essentially 
they are a pastoral people, and therefore prone t' 
wander. In Uganda, the occasionally polyandric Bahima 
are of Hamitic descent; they are herdsmen in Buganda, 
a sort of aristocracy in Unyoro, a ruling caste in Toro, 
and the dominant race with dynasties in Ankole. The 
dreaded Masai of East Africa seem to be a hybrid 
between the Negro and Galla. Another example of the 
predominance which a Hamitic mixture usually engenders 
is seen in the " rude Fullah shepherds " who overlord the 

34 The Races of Man 

settled, industrious, and commercial Negro Hausas in 
the Sudan. 

From time immemorial Semites have poured into 
Africa, and the whole country north of Sahara has been 
largely Semitised by Arabs of the Ishmaelitic group, but 
the Berbers remain as distinct as they can from the 
Arabs. A similar process has occurred in Abyssinia, but 
by the Himyaritic or Sabsean group. Arab traders and 
slave raiders have penetrated far into Africa, and have 
modified the population of the eastern coasts. 

The characters of the pygmies of the equatorial 
forests of Africa are variable, and mixture with Negroes 
has taken place. 


They are a markedly intelligent people, innately 
musical, and cunning, revengeful, and suspicious in 
disposition ; they never steal. 

They are nomadic hunters and collectors, never 
resorting to agriculture. They have no domestic 
animals. Only meat is cooked. They wear no clothing 
of any sort. They use bows and poisoned arrows. 

Their own language is not known. They live in small 
communities which centre round a cunning fighter or 
able hunter. Their dead are buried in the ground. 
Nothing is known of their religion. 


The Bushmen, Khuai or San, have been generally credi- 
ted with being vindictive, passionate, and cruel, but they 
were as a matter of fact always friendly and hospitable 
to strangers till dispossessed of their hunting grounds. 
They were not given to fighting one another, and were 
an unselfish, merry, cheerful race, with an intense love 
of freedom. 


Plate VIII.] 

NEGRILLO, Kasai Valley, Congo. 

[Races of Man, p. 34. 

Distribution of Races and Peoples 35 

Being nomadic hunters the Bushmen can only 
attain to the rudiments of material culture. Their 
clothing consists solely of a small skin, and there is a 
dearth of personal ornaments ; necklaces are, however, 
made out of the discs of ostrich eggs. They frequently 
cut off the terminal joint of the little finger. Their 
dwellings are portable, mat-covered, dome-shaped huts, 
but they often live in caves, the rock walls of which they 
are fond of decorating with spirited coloured representa- 
tions of men and animals; designs are also chipped by 
them on surfaces of exposed rocks. For weapons they 
have small bows and poisoned arrows ; their only 
implement is a perforated rounded stone, into which a 
stick is inserted, and this they use for digging up 
roots. A little coarse pottery is occasionally made. 
The Bushmen were never cannibals. Cairns of stones 
are erected over the graves of their dead. 


The Hottentots, or Khoikhoi, of former days were 
described as mild and amiable. They were absolutely 
improvident, unstable, and thoughtless, and extra- 
ordinarily dirty in every respect. Sick and infirm 
oersons and weak or deformed children were abandoned, 
but they never resorted to cannibalism. 

They were nomadic herdsmen who never cultivated 
the soil. Their chief foods were milk from their herds, 
the flesh of such animals as died, which they ate cooked, 
game, locusts, and various plants and fruits. They had 
an intoxicating drink made of honey, and smoked a sort 
of wild hemp which is a powerful intoxicant. 

Both sexes had clothing made of skins prepared with 
the hair on ; that of the men consisted of a skin flap in 
the front and a strip at the back. Their ornaments 
consisted of copper trinkets, and strings of shells or 
leopards' teeth round the neck. 

36 The Races op Man 

Their dwellings were portable, dome-shaped huts 
covered with mats, with one opening. These huts were 
arranged in a circle round a space used as a fold for 
cattle. They had wooden dishes for milk, and ostrich 
egg-shells were used as vessels. Their weapons were 
bows and poisoned arrows, assagais and knobkerries or 
clubbed sticks used as missiles. Clumsy earthenware 
pots were made for cooking. 

The Hottentots were grouped in clans, each with its 
hereditary chief, whose authority, however, was very 
limited. Several clans were loosely united to form 
tribes. The jealousy between the head men of the clans 
rendered the government very unstable. 

The Hottentots were polygynous, a man being allowed 
to have as many wives as he couid afford, who were 
generally taken from a different clan. 

The right of individuals to hold property apart from 
the community was recognised, and the possession of 
wealth entailed considerable influence. Children in- 
herited the property of their fathers. 

The Hottentots believed in charms, good and evil 
omens, and had a dread of ghosts and evil spirits. They 
sang and danced to the new moon. There was a cult of 
a mythical hero named Heitsi-eibib who has become 
magnified into the supreme power of good. There was 
also a powerful evil being named Gaunab, who was 
worsted by Heitsi-eibib. 


In the forest regions the people subsist mainly on 
bananas, fish, and game, though corn, yams, earth-nuts, 
beans, and gourds are frequently grown. In the more 
open country, millet is extensively grown together with 
other edible plants. Hunting is everywhere indulged in. 
Goats, pigs, and chickens are kept almost everywhere ; 
cattle and horses are kept only in the more open or 

Distribution of Races and Peoples 37 

higher regions, their distribution being largely regulated 
by the tsetse fly. 

The clothing of the Negroes consists of bark-cloth, 
woven palm-fibre, and introduced cotton, and they are 
much addicted to vegetable ornaments. Circumcision is 
common, and the upper incisors are frequently knocked 
out. The form of dwelling is the rectangular gable- 
roofed hut ; their weapons include spears with socketed 
heads, bows tapering at each end with bowstrings of 
vegetable products, swords, and plaited shields, but no 
clubs or slings. Among the musical instruments are 
wooden drums and a peculiar form of guitar in which 
each string has its own support. Head-rests and coiled 
basketry do not generally occur. Metal-working is met 
with everywhere and weaving is general ; earthenware is 
made everywhere, and leather-working is carried to a 
fine art. The Negroes have always been great traders, 
and markets are held in all towns. 

Among the more primitive tribes, the community is 
divided into exogamous septs which probably were 
originally totemic, and which trace their descent from a 
common ancestress. Polygyny is universal when a man 
can afford it, but the first wife takes precedence of the 
rest. Usually descent is in the female line, but 
occasionally it is reckoned through the father, in which 
case the sons inherit his property. Slavery is not so 
abject a condition as is often the case. Slaves may be 
war-captives, or a man may pawn himself or his 
relatives into slavery. Domestic slaves may inherit 

Secret societies flourish in West Africa in which 
masks are employed. These societies are powerful 
engines for the regulation of society and punishment of 
ill-doers, although at times their power is abused. Very 
frequently the women also have secret societies which 
support their interests. 

38 The Races of Man 

Fetishism is universal; the fetish may consist of any 
object whatsoever; it is accredited with mysterious 
power owing to its being temporarily or permanently the 
vessel or habitation or instrument of some unseen power 
or spirit. It may act by the will or force of its own 
power or spirit, or by force of a foreign power enterin 
in or acting on it from without. It is worshipped, 
prayed to, sacrificed to, and petted or ill-treated 
according to its behaviour. 

Animism, the belief in everything in nature being 
animated by an indwelling spirit of its own, is said to be 
prevalent. Some deities are local, but there are 
frequently other deities of the sky, of the earthquake, and 
so forth. Priests occur everywhere, but it is only among 
the more civilised peoples that they acquire power. 
A cult of ancestors is met with in all parts. 


The Bantu peoples may be roughly divided according 
to culture into two groups: a western zone, which skirts 
the West African region or the Congo basin and extends 
through Angola and German West Africa into Cape 
Colony; and an eastern zone. (1) The western Bantu 
zone is characterised by beehive huts, the absence of 
circumcision, and the presence of wooden shields (plain 
or covered with cane-work) in its northern portion, 
though skin shields occur to the south. (2) In the 
eastern Bantu zone, except among the Zulu peoples, the 
huts are cylindrical, with a separate conical roof. 
Certain characteristics are typical of the Bantu culture 
as a whole. The natives live in rounded huts with 
•pointed roofs. The domestic animals include the dog, 
goat, and sheep and cattle are found wherever possible. 
Clothing is of skin and leather, and there is a pre- 
dominance of animal ornaments; knocking out or filing 


Distribution of Races and Peoples 39 

of incisors is general except in the south; circumcision is 
common, though among the Zulu tribes it seems to be 
dying out. Their weapons comprise spears, in which 
the head is fastened into the shaft by a spike, bows with 
bowstrings of animal products, clubs and skin shields, 
but slings are usually absent. Coiled basketry is made, 
and head-rests are a characteristic feature. 

Totemism once existed, but now only occurs in certain 
tribes. Ancestor-worship is the prevalent form of 
religion; fetishism and polytheism are undeveloped. 
Masks and representations of human figures are rare, 
and there are no secret societies, though secluded 
initiation ceremonies may be held. Anthropophagy is 
sporadic and usually temporary. 

The Bantu are cattle-rearers who practise agriculture. 
This duality of occupation led to variability in mode of 
life. In some places the land invited the population 
towards husbandry, in others the physical conditions 
were more suited to a pastoral life, and thus we find 
settled agricultural tribes on the one hand and wandering 
herders on the other. The Bantu peoples easily adopt 
changes of custom ; under the leadership of a warlike 
chief they become warlike and cruel, a common char- 
acteristic of pastoral peoples. The history of the prolific 
Bantu peoples on the whole indicates that they were as 
loosely attached to the soil as were the Ancient Germans, 
and, like the latter, at the slightest provocation, they 
would abandon their country and seek another home. 
This readiness to migrate is the direct effect of a pastoral 
life, and along with this legacy of unrest their Hamitic 
ancestors transmitted a social organisation which lent 
itself to discipline. 

40 The Races of Man 


The population of Europe may be briefly described as 
consisting of an indigenous white population and intrusive 
Asiatic peoples. 

In classifying the Europeans proper, the most im- 
portant physical features to be noted are the cephalic 
index, pigmentation, and stature. The cephalic index 
ranges from 62 to 103, but the limit of variation in 
definite groups is much more restricted. Pigmentation 
in Europe is mainly considered with regard to the colour of 
hair and eyes. Dark hair and dark eyes constitute pure 
brunet types; fair hair and light eyes, pure blond types; 
their relative frequency is expressed in percentages. 
Pig nentation shades from 54% of pure blond types in 
Sweden to 96% of pure brunet types in Greece. Stature 
appears to be of less importance ; it varies from a 
preponderance of heights about l*6m. (5ft. 3in.) in 
Sardinia to l*792m. (5ft. lOfin.) in Galloway (South-west 

Judged by these characters, the bulk of the existing 
population of true Europeans can be divided into three 
main groups: — (1) Tail, fair, dolichocephals in the north, 
(2) Short or tall, medium-coloured, brachycephals in the 
centre ; and (3) Short, dark, dolichocephals in the south. 
During and since neolithic times the Nordic (Northern), 
Alpine, and Mediterranean "races" have existed in 
northern, central, and southern Europe, but various 
movements and mixtures of portions of these three 
groups have occurred which have greatly complicated 
European racial ethnology. 

The Asiatic elements in Europe are confined to its 

Distribution of Races and Peoples 41 

eastern portion ; they belong to the Ugrian, Turki and 
Mongol divisions of the Ural-Altaians. 

Northern Europe : — 

Scandinavia. — There are three distinct racial elements 
in Scandinavia : — 

1. The Lapps are Ugrians of Asiatic origin who 
lived in the north of Norway and Sweden, but 
formerly they extended further to the South. 

2. Northern Race, in greatest purity over the 
greater part of Norway, Sweden, and Denmark. 

3. Round the south of Sweden, the south and 
west coast of Norway, and on the opposite shores of 
Denmark, is a brachycephalic type (index 80-83)i 
with darker hair and eye colour, and shorter stature, 
thus indicating a mixture with the Alpine Race. 

British Isles. — Mainly inhabited by members of the 
Northern and Mediterranean Races, with traces of 
Alpine Race. The cephalic index is uniformly 77-78. 
The Northern elements are more pronounced on 
north and east of Britain, with fair colouring and 
tall stature. The Mediterranean elements persist in 
Inverness, Argyle, Wales, Cornwall, an area north 
of London, the Fen country, and largely in Ireland, 
with darker colouring and shorter stature. Traces 
of Alpine elements occur in Fife, East Lothian, 
Aberdeen, Shetland Islands, Faroe Islands, and the 
north-west coast of Ireland, with a cephalic index 
of 79-81. 

Central Europe : — 

France. — Two axes of fertility, from Flanders to 
Bordeaux, and along the Rhone valley, separate 
four less attractive areas : the Ardennes plateau, 
Auvergne, Savoy, and Brittany. These areas are 
occupied by the Alpine Race, with a cephalic index 

42 The Races of Man 

of 83-87, medium colouring, and short stature, 
especially in Auvergne. The axes of fertility are 
occupied by the Northern Race to the north, and 
the Mediterranean Race to the south ; the cephalic 
index ranges from 79 to 83 ; blondness and stature 
decrease from north to south. 

In Dordogne a type is met with which has a 
cephalic index of 76 to 78, a low vault, broad face, 
prominent cheekbones, dark colouring, and a medium 
stature. This is regarded as a survival of the 
Cro-Magnon type, which dates from late Palaeolithic 

In Brittany, the fringe of Northern Race round 
the coast is due to Saxon invasions, especially 
noticeable in the predominance of fair types in 
Morbihan. There are traces of a Cornish settlement 
near Dinan. 

The Basques are placed by Deniker in his Littoral 
or Atlanto -Mediterranean Race. They are brachy- 
ccphalic (index 83) north of the Pyrenees ; and 
mesaticephalic (index 77-79) south of the Pyrenees ; 
the dividing line being over the north slope of the 
range. The facial features found among both types 
are a triangular face, broad temples, long pointed 
chin, long thin nose, dark hair, dark eyes rather 
close together, and a stature of l*65m. to l*674m. 
(5ft. 5in. to 5ft. 6in.). The Basques are generally 
regarded as a variety of the Mediterranean Race. 

Switzerland. — The Alpine Race is predominant, and the 
Northern Race subordinate ; cephalic index 87 ; hair 
and eye colour medium; stature, l*67m. (5ft. 5|in.). 

Belgium. — The Flemings of the northern plains belong 
to the Northern Race ; cephalic index 79. The 
Walloons of the southern uplands are members of 
the Alpine Race ; cephalic index 82. 

Distribution of Races and Peoples 43 

Netherlands. — Northern Race predominates. A brachy- 
cephalic element (index 83-87) occurs in the 
provinces of Noord-Holland and Zeeland. 

Germany. — The Northern Race is paramount in the 
northern plains, and the Alpine Race prevails in 
the southern uplands ; there is a decrease in 
dolichocephaly, blondness and height from north to 

Austria- Hungary contains several racial elements : — 

In Austria proper and Salzburg, traits of the 
Northern Race predominate. The cephalic index 
varies from 79 to 81, and blond types are frequent ; 
the average stature is about l*65m. to l-67m. 
(5ft. 5in. to 5ft. 5jin.). Elsewhere the cephalic 
index ranges from 83 to 86 ; darker types prevail ; 
the stature in the east averages l-62m. to l*64m, 
(5ft. 3|in. to 5ft. 4£in.). A tall type (Deniker's 
Adriatic or Dinaric Race) occurs in the south, the 
stature of which averages from l-68m. to l # 72m. 
(5ft. 6in. to 5ft. 7f in.) ; it is brachycephalic (index 
81-86), and has dark hair and a narrow straight 
nose. Thus the Cevenole and Anatolian varieties 
of the Alpine Race are present in Austria. 

Hungary. — The Magyars were originally of 
Finno-Ugrian origin (p. 49). The Finno-Ugrian type 
is brachycephalic or mesaticephalic, with projecting 
cheek-bones, straight or concave nose, yellowish 
white skin ; straight brown hair, and short stature. 
The Magyars have, however, assimilated to a 
European type ; their cephalic index is probably 84, 
they have a moderately dark colouring, and medium 
stature, l-619m. to l-646m. (5ft. 3Jin. to 5ft. 4 Jin.). 

44 The Races op Man 

Easterv Europe : — 

Russia. — Three racial elements occur, the Northern 
Alpine, and Ural- Altaian : — 

1. To the Northern Race belong the Letto- 
Lithuanians, with a cephalic index 77-80, tall 
stature, a long face, and fair colouring, 67% being 
pure blonds. 

2. To the Alpine Race belong the three main 
groups of Russians: — 

(i) The Great Russians in the north, east, and 
centre are brachycephalic (index 82), with a 
square face, heavy features, reddish blond hair, 
orange-brown eyes, and a stature averaging 
l-64m. (5ft. 4£in.). 

(ii) The Little Russians in the south, on the 
Black Mould belt, have a cephalic index of 82-83, 
darker colouring, and taller stature. 

(iii) The White Russians in the west, between 
Poland and Lithuania, have a cephalic index of 
82; they are the fairest of the three groups, and 
are of medium height. 

The Polesians of the Pinsk marshes, with a 
cephalic index of 82-83; straight flaxen hair, and 
short stature, l*635m. (5ft. 4Jin.); constitute 
Deniker's Oriental Race. 

The Poles mainly belong to the Alpine Race ; their 
cephalic index varies from 80 in the west to 83 in 
the east, they are moderately fair, and of very short 
stature, 161m. (5ft. 3£in.). They belong to Deniker's 
Vistulian Race. 

3. Three branches of the Ural- Altaian are 
represented : — 

(i) To the Mongols belong the Kalmuks between 
the Don and the Dnieper. 

Distribution of Races and Peoples 45 

(ii) To the Turki belong the Kirghiz round the 
north and west of the Caspian Sea, the Volga 
Tatars to the east of Russia, and the Crimean 
Tatars to the south. 

(iii) To various divisions of the Ugrians belong 
the Lapps and the Finns to the north-west, and 
the Samoyads and others to the north-east. 
Many of these groups have entirely lost their 
" Mongolian " character, e.g., the Finns. The 
Finns as a whole are mesaticephalic (index 76-77) 
to brachycephalic (index 81-82). They are 
divisible into two main groups : — 

(i.) The Karelians in the east are less brachy- 
cephalic, have chestnut hair, straight grey eyes, 
brown complexion, and are tall and slim. 

(ii.) The Tavastians, in the west, are more 
brachycephalic, with light flaxen or tow -coloured 
hair, small and slightly oblique blue eyes, a white 
complexion, and are short, broad, and thick set. 

Balkan States. — Mixed peoples, mainly of Alpine, 
Finno-Ugrian and Turki origin, prevail in the 
Balkan States. 

The Roumanians consist of Turki and Slav (Alpine 
Race) elements; the cephalic index ranges from 79 
on the east coast to 85 in the west, rising in 
places to 87*8 ; with dark colouring, and a stature of 
l'638m. (5ft. 4£in.). They speak a Romance 

The Bulgarians contain Ugrian and Slav elements; 
their cephalic index is 78 on the coast, and 85 in the 
west; they have a broad, flattish face; black hair; 
small slant eyes; and a stature of l*63m. (5ft. 4^in.) > 
with heavy figures. They speak a Slav language. 

46 The Races of Man 

The Albanians are Southern Slavs; they are 
hyper-brachycephalic (index rising to 89), relatively 
blond, with a stature of l'68m. (5ft. 6in.). Their 
language is derived from the old Illyrian, a proto- 
Aryan dialect. Deniker places them in his Adriatic 
or Dinaric Race. 

The Turks are brachiocephalic, with a cephalic 
index of 85-87, a cuboid head, elongated oval face, 
straight, somewhat prominent nose ; yellowish white 
complexion; dark hair; and dark non-Mongoloid 
eyes; they are of moderately tall stature, 1 "675111. 
(5ft. 6in.), with a tendency to obesity. Of Turki 

Southern Europe : — 

Greece. — The indigenous Mediterranean Race has been 
overlaid by the Alpine Race; cephalic index 81; 
smooth oval face, rather narrow and high ; nose 
straight, thin, and high ; uniformly dark hair and 
eyes; stature l-626m. (5ft. 4in.). 

Italy. — The Alpine Race occurs in the basin of the Po, 
between the Apennines and the Alps; cephalic index 
83-87; with fair to medium colouring, and often light 
brown hair and eyes; the stature averages l*645m. 
(5ft. 4fin.), but is taller towards the north. The 
Mediterranean Race occupies the peninsula; the 
cephalic index ranges from 84 in the north to 77-78 
in the south ; brunet types increase in frequency to 
over 60% in the south ; and the stature falls to 
l*55m. (5ft. lin.) in the south. There are traces of 
the Northern Race in Lombardy. 

Distribution of Races antd Peoples 47 

Spain. — Mainly inhabited by the Mediterranean Race ; 
the physical characters are fairly uniform. The 
cephalic index is pretty generally 76-79, but in the 
north-west mountains it is broader, 79-80; dark hair 
and eyes; the stature averages about l*62m. to 
l'66m. (5ft. 3fin. to 5ft. 5in.), increasing from the 
centre towards the coast. 

48 The Races of Man 


Our knowledge of the history of Central and Northern 
Asia is very imperfect, and owing to the great move- 
ments of peoples that have taken place, the racial 
history is a peculiarly difficult problem. A further 
source of uncertainty is the indefinite manner in which 
racial terms have been employed. The following sketch, 
therefore, must be regarded as tentative. 

The aboriginal population of Northern Asia belongs to 
that group to which the name Ural-Altaic is frequently 
applied. This term was designed to express linguistic 
affinities, and though the group extends beyond its 
geographical significance, it will be provisionally adopted, 
for want of a better designation. These people are also 
usually called Mongols or Northern Mongols. The term 
Mongol appears to have been originally given to a horde 
of aggressive nomads who were recruited from Turki, 
Oghuz and Tungus tribes. Latterly it has been so 
employed as to embrace all the brachycephalic, straight- 
haired peoples of Asia, who have a more or less 
yellowish skin, frequently high cheek-bones, and often a 
peculiar kind of eye, which may be also oblique. 

The short, western, and northern Ural-Altaians form 
one division, which includes such peoples as the Ugrians 
(in part), Pal&asiatics, some of the Tungus, and the true 
Mongols. The taller eastern Ural-Altaians include the 
Manchu-Koreans, but amongst these a race mixture may 

Distribution of Races and Peoples 49 

be suspected. The Finno-Ugrians and Turki are of 
mixed descent. 

In prehistoric times there appears to have been an 
extension of dolichocephalic peoples (a branch of which 
group occurred along the plains of Europe) right across 
Asia, of which the Ainus may be modified descendants, 
and whose influence may be detected among the Manchus 
and upper class Tungus. This presumed migration does 
not appear to have effected much in the way of civilisa- 
tion ; probably because the people were in a low stage of 
culture and lived under unfavourable conditions. 

There was probably a later extension of dolichocephals 
more nearly related to the Nordic race of Europe. The 
Chinese annals tell of red-haired, blue-eyed tribes in 
Central Asia, of w T hich the Wusuns were one, and recent 
excavations in Chinese Turkistan have demonstrated the 
former occurrence of this type in that region. They 
were of better physique and greater energy than the older 
dolichocephals, and appear to have belonged to that race 
which many ethnologists term Aryan, but Kingsmill* has 

* " In the old Iranian cosmogony Feridun (Thraetaona, the 
Vedic Traitona), had three sons, Cairima, Tuirya, and Airya, 
the eponyms respectively of the" Cairimyans (Sauromats), 
Tuiryans (Turanians), i.e., the ancient inhabitants of the 
Pamirs and the basin of Eastern Turkistan, and the Aryans 
(these last forming, however, only one of the many families 
comprised by modern ethnologists under the general term 
Aryan). As Feridun is always in the Iranian legend the 
' Athwyan,' i.e., the descendant of Athwya, I have suggested 
the term Athwyan to cover the entire section of the blond race 
now roughly known as Aryan, and would reserve the latter 
term for the first stream of the immigrants into India some 
eighteen centuries B.C. and their immediate relations, especi- 
ally the Iranians." 

(T. \V. Kingsmill, Jul. China Branch Ray. Asiatic Soc, 

XXXVII, 1906, p. 35.) 

50 The Races of Man 

proposed the term Athwyan for the Aryan group of 
peoples, and Turanian for this particular branch. 

The Finno-Ugrian and Turki peoples may very well 
have arisen from a crossing between Ural-Altaians and 
Athwyans. This perhaps might help to account for the 
degree of culture arrived at by the Proto-Finns in their 
Asiatic home in Altai, and of that of the Hiung-nu and 

A mixture of races has also occurred in South-eastern 
Asia. The yellow-skinned brachycephals, for whom 
Kingsmill proposes the name of Pareceans, are the Indo- 
Chinese, or Southern Mongols, of most authors. There is 
good evidence of an entirely distinct race, characterised 
by fine features, straight eyes, and probably a narrow 
head, inhabiting parts of Southern China, and it seems 
to have a wide range in that part of Asia. The Man-tse 
of Yun-nan and Se-chuen (who are described as tall, 
graceful, with a brownish but not yellow skin, the 
colour of the hair has a tendency to chestnut and is 
sometimes wavy, face oval, cheek-bones but slightly 
prominent, nose elevated and moderately broad, eyes 
large, level, with no fold of the upper eyelid), are 
descendants of this race, which is probably allied to the 
Indonesian stock. 

The Chinese are Parea^an at base with other mixtures. 
Many students believe that the progressive element of 
the old Chinese civilisation was due to a migration 
of a semi-cultured people from Chinese Turkistan or 
even, originally, from further west. The Japanese are 
also Pareseans (Indo-Chinese) with a strong Korean 
blend, and in places with a substratum of Ainu blood. 

Distribution of Races and Pboples 51 

The Negrito race must in early days have had a greater 
extension in the extreme south-east of Asia and in the 
East Indian Archipelago than occurs at present. The 
Melanesians have left no trace of their assumed ancient 
passage, except in the south of the Archipelago. The 
Sakai, the Batin of Sumatra and the Toala of Celebes have 
been recognised as belonging to the Pre-Dravidian race, 
and they may be regarded as being vestiges of the 
Australian migration. The existing population of the 
Archipelago, with exceptions just noted, consists mainly 
of varying degrees of mixture of dolichocephalic 
Indonesians with brachy cephalic Proto-Malays. In some 
places there has also been a slight Arab influence ; in 
others, Dravidians from India on the one hand and 
Chinese on the other have definitely modified the 

The brachycephals south of the Himalayas are more 
closely related to the Tibetans than to the Indo-Chinese. 
Keane distinguishes three racial elements among the 
Tibetans : — The Bod-pa, the settled and more or less 
civilized section, who occupy most of the southern and 
more fertile provinces. The Dru-pa, peaceful, semi- 
nomadic pastoral tribes of the northern plateaus. The 
Tanguts, predatory tribes who hover about the north- 
eastern borderland. 

The ethnological history of India is dealt with on 
pages 56-60. 

The plateaus of Western Asia appear to have been 
originally inhabited by the Alpine Race. "Aryans," 
allied to the Aryas who entered North-east India, have 
over-lorded Persia, and for ages Turki tribes have poured 

52 The Races op Man 

over the whole area from the north-east, and Semites 
have encroached from the south, while the littoral of 
Asia Minor has always been more or less occupied by 
Mediterraneans. It is significant that the Sumers, who 
founded the earliest Babylonian civilisation, were possibly 
of Turki origin; they soon became Semitised, but the 
civilisation was pre-Semitic. 


Nearly the whole breadth of Central Asia, excluding 
the deserts and mountains, is a grass-clad region in 
which cattle-keeping is the natural industry. In the 
inhospitable regions to the north, grass is replaced by 
the lichen generally known as " reindeer moss." 
Horses, sheep, goats, cows, and camels are kept in 
the steppe region, while reindeer alone can exist on 
the tundra. The latter region is inhabited by wandering 
tribes who depend more or less on the reindeer for 
their existence. The Lapps, and the tribes living in 
the tundra of North Russia, are in a similar condition. 
Both the steppe and the tundra necessitate a nomadic 
life, and this fact has had a profound effect on the 
history of Asia. The desiccation of Central Asia has 
caused migration from lands that were formerly more 
fertile, and this was facilitated by the mobile habits 
of the pastoral peoples. The inroads of the hordes 
of this origin into India, Western Asia, and Eastern 
Europe have left a deep mark alike in racial distribution, 
history, and tradition. 

Distribution of Races and Peoples 53 

Herders on the Steppes. 

The Khalkas are a good type of a purely nomadic 

The only two modes of sustenance possible to them 
are hunting and herding, and these are facilitated by the 
fact that they possess the horse as a domestic animal. 
As a result of these occupations, the men are fine 
horsemen and extremely hardy; they are, however, prone 
to idleness. The women's work consists in milking 
twice daily, taking charge of the beasts at foaling time, 
house-work, needlework, the manufacture of household 
utensils, tanning leather, fulling wool, and making 
illuminant, soap, and dyes. All the labour of shifting 
the camp falls upon them. 

In their organisation the unit is the family, and above 
this the sole grouping is the tribe, which is practically 
the union of families of common origin. Authority is 
vested in the old men, of whom the patriarch is chief; 
he combines the functions of father, teacher, magistrate, 
priest, and sovereign, being the depositary of traditions 
and the supreme judge. Otherwise there is essential 
equality between men. Children are numerous, and 
have a profound veneration for their father, from whom 
age does not enfranchise them. There is no government 
external to the family. 

Property consists of cattle. There is no personal 
ownership of land otherwise than the temporary 
possession constituted by usage of it. 

Shamanism is the basis of their religion, but it is 
overlaid by Buddhism. Filial piety characterises later 
religious developments. 

54 The Racbs of Man 

Herders on the Tundra. 

There are four groups of peoples living in the 
tundra : — 

(1) The purely pastoral peoples who possess herds of 
domesticated reindeer and live on their milk and flesh — 
Samoyads, etc. 

(2) The pastoral groups whose herds of reindeer are 
insufficient to support life. This may result from 
epidemics or from the cantonment system established by 
the Russian Government; the limitation of pasturing 
rights necessitates a reduction in the number of the 
reindeer, and the few that remain are too precious to be 
used for food. The means of subsistence have to be 
supplemented by hunting, fishing and trading — Tungus, 
Yakuts, etc. 

(3) The peoples who possess the most numerous herds 
of reindeer of all the tundra tribes. These animals are 
not tame, they cannot be milked and are not of much use 
for transport, but they are bred in large numbers for food 
and trade — Chukchis and Koryaks. 

(4) Those who have no reindeer and have to support 
a miserable existence by hunting, fishing and trading; 
they are often dependent on other groups — Chukchis, 
Gilyaks, and many remnants of other tribes. 

The poverty of the soil and rapid exhaustion of the food 
necessitate frequent changes of pasturage. In winter 
the herds descend into the plains and valleys ; in summer 
they retreat to the hills, partly to escape from the 
mosquitoes. Herders of reindeer lead a more wandering 

Distribution of Races and Peoples 55 

life than other pastors. It is a poor living, ten reindeer 
giving only as much milk as one cow. 

The Chukchis rarely have more than one wife, who is 
earned by working for her for a year or more in the camp 
of the prospective father-in-law. The women are treated 
as equals, the children are well-behaved, and there is 
great family affection. The poorer Ostyaks marry only 
one wife, but the rich look upon it as a right to have two 
or more. Among them too the children are dutiful, and 
there is great family affection. The Samoyad wife has 
equal rights with her husband and is treated 

There is no government among the Chukchis and no 
chiefs other than the fictitious chiefs appointed by the 
Russians, who possess no power. The people live in a 
state of anarchy, yet the greatest unanimity prevails. 

When the Russian Government does not interfere the 
grazing grounds are open to all. Reindeer constitute the 
real property ; three hundred will suffice for a Lapp 
family, a Lapp with a herd of five thousand is a veritable 
capitalist; the poorest have only half-a-dozen. 

Shamanism is prevalent throughout the district. 
The Coast Chukchis have no noteworthy religion ; 
among them there is no crime except that committed 
under the influence of liquor. The Ostyaks believe that 
a dead man continues to lead a spirit life among the 
living; his reward is to do good, his punishment to do 
evil to his living relatives. Many Samoyads are nominal 
Christians so long as things go well with them. 

56 The Races of Man 


India broadly speaking is divided into three main geogra- 
phical areas: — (1) the southern slopes of the Himalaya, 
inhabited by broad-headed peoples who possess most of 
the character described as " Mongolian ;" (2) the valleys 
of the Indus and the Ganges; (3) the Deccan or central 
and southern tableland. These areas are inhabited by 
dolichocephalic peoples except for a group of brachy- 
cephalic peoples who extend in a broad band down the 
west coast of India from the lower waters of the Indus to 
about latitude 12° N. 

The languages fall into three main divisions: — 
(1) Aryan (Sanskrit, Pali, and Prakit w 7 ith its modern 
derivatives Hindi, Bengali, etc., and Sinhali). (2) Dravid- 
ian (Tamil, Telugu, Malayalim, etc.). (3) The Munda 
languages belong to the Mon- Khmer family. Schmidt 
calls this group of languages Austroasiatic, which with 
the Austronesian (Melanesian, Polynesian, Malay, etc.) 
form his Austric linguistic family. 

When the Aryas entered India from the north-west, 
some 2,000 years B.C., they first occupied the fertile 
lands of the Punjab; their progress south-west being 
barred by the deserts of Raj pu tana they passed into the 
valleys of the Jumna and Ganges, where they found the 
Naga, yellow peoples who had a snake (cobra) cult. 
When they reached the Gandak they encountered the 
Dasyu, who were described as dark-coloured, 
low-statured, treacherous and foul in manners. The 
aboriginal elements were prepotent, and the so-called 
Aryan conquest was more social than ethnical, the 

Distribution of Races and Peoples 57 

spread of the culture was peaceful and intellectual 
rather than imposed by conquest (Crooke). The entry 
into the Punjab was a very gradual one, probably 
extending over centuries. 

The Sakas, the Se (Sek) of the Chinese annals, 
originally were a horde of pastoral nomads, like the 
modern Turkomans, who came from the region between 
the Jaxartes (Syr Darya) and west of the country of the 
Wusuns (p. 49). About 150 B.C. they were expelled from 
their pasture grounds by another horde, the Yueh-chi, 
and compelled to migrate southwards. They ultimattly 
reached India about 150-140 B.C., probably through the 
Pamirs, Gilgit and the Suwat Valley, until they entered 
the plains of Peshawar. Another branch advanced 
further to the south, perhaps crossed Sind, and occupied 
Kathiawar. Pahlavas from Persia and Yavanas 
('Asiatic Greeks') also occupied parts of Western India 
about this time. A Turki-tribe, the Yiieh-chi, who 
occupied lands in the province of Kan-suh in North- 
western China, were ousted between 174 and 160 B.C. 
by an allied horde, the Hiung-nu, and a multitude of from 
half a million to a million persons of all ages and both 
sexes migrated westward. They conquered the Wusuns 
and drove out the Sakas, whose land they occuplt ' 
About 140 B.C. the Hiung-nu and Wusuns drove them 
southwards to Sogdiana and Bactria, lands to the nonh 
and south of the Upper Oxus (Amu Darya). Here they 
became a settled nation. Kadphises I., chief of the 
Kushan section of the horde, established himself as sole 
monarch of the Yueh-chi nation about 45 A.D., and 
Kadphises II. extended his dominion about 90-100 A.D. 

58 The Races of Man 

all over North-western India as far as Benares, but ex- 
cluding Sind. The collapse of the Kushan power in India 
occurred about 226 A.D. About 455 A.D. an irruption 
of savage Hunas poured from the steppes of Central Asia 
through the north-west passes and carried devastation 
over the plains and crowded cities of India. They were 
repulsed by Skandagupta, King of the Gupta Empire, but 
the latter succumbed in 470 to fresh invasions of these 
White Huns (Ephthalites, Huna, Hoa, or Ye-the), a 
brachycephalic polyandric Tatar people. They were 
expelled about 528 A.D. by a confederation of Hindu 
princes. The arrival of the Turks in the Oxus valley 
in the middle of the sixth century changed the 
situation completely, and about 565 A.D. the White 
Huns were destroyed and the Turks annexed the 
whole of the remaining Hun empire. The Gurjaras 
probably entered India about the same time as 
the White Huns and settled in large numbers in 
Rajputana. It is not known whence they came. They 
formed kingdoms in early mediaeval times, and many 
kings of the powerful Kanauj dynasty were Gurjaras. 
The surviving Gujars are primarily a pastoral people, 

jaged in agriculture. (Vincent A. 

ey there exists in the Kashmir Valley, 
Punjab and Rajputana, a definite physical type repre- 
sented by the Rajputs and Jats. This type possesses a 
dolichocephalic head, straight, finely-cut, leptorrhine 
nose, long, narrow face, well-developed forehead, regular 
features, tall stature, and light transparent brown skin. 
The Rajputs look upon governing and bearing arms as 

Distribution of Races and Peoples 59 

the proper business of life. No regard is paid to educa- 
tion. They are never artisans, and rarely trade. Caste 
is not rigid, all Rajputs being theoretically, but not actu- 
ally, of one blood. Widows may not remarry. They are 
orthodox Hindus with ancestor worship. The Jat is a 
sturdy, independent, patient husbandman, peaceable if 
unmolested. Those of the western plains are pastors. The 
Jats allow widows to remarry. They are Muhammadans 
in religion. 

Even the Rajputs cannot claim to be pure Aryans, and 
the most ancient clans prove to be very mixed in origin. 
In the Punjab we have reigning Brahman families which 
became Rajput; in Oudh, Brahmans, Bhars and Ahirs 
have all contributed to the Rajput clans, but the majority 
appear to have been Aryanised Sudras. Of the clans of 
Rajputana some — like the Chauhans, Solankis and 
Gehlots — have a foreign origin ; others are allied to the 
Indo-Scythic Jats and Gujars ; others represent ancient 
ruling families with more or less probability. These 
clans, however, acquired a certain homogeneity by con- 
stant intermarriage and the adoption of common customs 
(J. Kennedy). The well-known clan of Parihar Rajputs 
is a branch of the Gurjara or Gujar stock. Most of the 
great Rajput clans are descended from foreign immigrants 
of the fifth or sixth century A.D., or from indigenous 
races such as the Gonds, Bhars, Kols, and the like. 
r. A. Smith.) 

As soon as the Aryas established themselves in the 
lains of the Ganges and Jumna, they mingled with the 
borigines, and by stress of the contact caste was 
volved, the Code of Manu written, and the elaborate 

60 The Races op Man 

orthodox ritual built up. Thus was produced the mixed 
type of Hindustan and Bihar, with all grades of mixture, 
the Aryo-Dravidians of Risley. There are three 
divisions : The Babhans of Bihar, a fine manly people 
with Aryan type of features, medium height; they 
are mesaticephalic and mesorrhine. The territorial 
exogamous groups render it probable that they are 
a branch of the Rajputs. They are settled agri- 
culturists, but will not drive the plough with their 
own hands. 

The Chamars of the United Provinces and Bengal have 
been largely recruited from non-Aryan elements. They 
are of low medium stature, dolichocephalic and platyr- 
rhine. They are leather workers and day-labourers. 
Polygyny is discouraged. They are a proud and 
punctilious people, but are looked upon as impure 
because they eat beef, pork, and fowls, and keep pigs. 
The Brahmans of the United Provinces are a dolicho- 
cephalic, mesorrhine people of medium height. 

A zone of relatively broad-headed people extends from 
the great grazing country of the Western Punjab through 
the Deccan to the Coorgs. Risley supports the view 
that this may be the track of the Scythians, who found 
their progress east blocked by the Indo-Aryans and so 
turned south, mingled with the Dravidian population, 
and became the ancestors of the Marathas and Canarese. 
But evidence seems to be lacking that the " Scythians" 
penetrated far into the Deccan, and apart from brachy- 
cephaly there is little to associate these peoples with 
Scythians. It seems quite possible that these brachy- 
cephals are the result of an unrecorded migration of 

Distribution of Races and Peoples 61 

some members of the Alpine race from the highlands of 
South-west Asia in pre-historic times. 

The main element in the modern Mahrattas (Marathas) 
is that known as Kunbi or Kurmi, a widespread caste of 
cultivators, undoubtedly of " Di avidian " (aboriginal) 
origin, numerous throughout the northern plains as far 
east as Bengal. The Mahrattas form the higher status 
group of this people, to which they have attained by the 
same methods as those of the Rajputs in the Punjab. 
Even now the difference between the Mahratta and 
Kunbi is mainly social. Hinduism prevails, though 
totems still survive. 

Three other members of this group are: The Prabhus, 
a mesaticephalic, mesorrhine people of rather low 
stature, who reside chiefly in the districts around 
Bombay City, but who originally came from Oudh ; 
probably the Gupta dynasty belonged to this stock. The 
original occupation was that of the soldier, now they 
wield the pen. Polygyny is allowed but is not the rule ; 
neither divorce nor remarriage of widows are allowed. 
They follow the Vedic form of religion, but arms and 
writing materials are worshipped. The Canarese are 
mesaticephalic with regular features. They are frank, 
independent, intelligent, and fond of show. Formerly 
they made wide-ranging forays, adopting guerilla 
methods; they were unscrupulous with friend or foe, and 
too individualistic to build up a kingdom. The former 
fighting middle class now cultivate the soil. Every 
family has its guardian or symbol, which was formerly a 
totem. The Coorgs, who inhabit the extreme south of 
the Bombay Presidency, and speak a Dravidian language, 

62 The Races of Man 

are a mesaticephalic, mesorrhine people, of medium 
height, with light brown skin and straight hair. They 
are agriculturists with sporting and fighting proclivities, 
and are the finest people in South India, 

The pure Veddas of Ceylon are probably the least 
modified survivals of the ancient Pre-Dravidian race; 
they are a grave but happy people, with a love of liberty, 
upright, hospitable, and quiet. Lying and theft are 
unknown among them ; they have a great fear of 
strangers. They live in rock shelters or simple huts, 
and subsist by hunting and collecting honey, etc. After 
a death they perform certain dances and rites through a 
shaman to the recently departed spirit, and they also 
propitiate certain powerful spirits, male and female, by 
sacrifices and ceremonial dances. They are strictly 
monogamous, and live in detached communities which 
have no regular chief. Some of the Pre-Dravidian 
tribes of South India are jungle hunters in a state of 
savagery, with very little, if any, agriculture; others are 
agriculturists, while some are artisans. Some are mono- 
gamous, others polygynous. Animism is very widely 
spread, but simple forms of Hinduism have been 
adopted by the more cultured tribes. 

Various stages of culture are met with among the 
true Dravidian peoples. Some, like the totemic Bhils of 
the north-west Deccan, live mainly on natural produce 
but even these are taking to agriculture. The Bhils, the 
outcasts of centuries, are contemned by the Hindus and 
scorned by the Rajputs; but when a Rajput chief is 
installed, it is the despised Bhil who puts the sign of 
kingship on his forehead. 

Distribution of Races and Peoples 63 

Southern India is mainly inhabited by numerous 
Dravidian peoples who are grouped linguistically into 
Telegu, Tamil, and Malayalim. The Telegu (Telinga, 
Kalinga, or Klings) extend over the Coromandel coast, 
the northern half of the Madras Presidency, and 
Hyderabad. Thurston has recently shown that the 
Telegu of the north-east have an average cephalic 
index of about seventy - eight, showing that 
so-called "Scythian" mixture has taken place. The 
Telegus have superior physique to the Tamils and are 
lighter in colour. Formerly they possessed a martial 
spirit, founded famous kingdoms, and sent colonists to 
the East; now the Madrasi is a man of peace, an agri- 
culturist and shopkeeper. The Tamils occupy most of 
the southern half of Madras Presidency and the north of 
Ceylon. The Nayars form the bulk of the Sudra popula- 
tion of Malabar. They are described as frank, affection- 
ate, hospitable, industrious, with reverence for authority. 
They are not strict vegetarians. Malabar is the most 
literate country in all India, and almost every Nayar girl 
goes to school. These people were the swordsmen, the 
military caste of the west coast of India. There are 
numerous divisions which may or may not be endogamous, 
but the mother-right kinship groups (Taravad) are strictly 
exogamous. Very young girls are married symbolically 
with a ceremony at which the Tali is tied ; the true 
marriage to another man is a simple affair. In South 
Malabar the woman never lives in her husband's house, 
but she does so in North Malabar; the relations between 
the sexes are not influenced by considerations of property. 
A good deal of license is allowed by some groups, others 

64 The Races of Man 

are strictly monogamous; polyandry certainly occurred 
formerly, as it still does amongst other Malabar castes. 
In Malabar the most abstract religion of South India is 
mingled with the most primitive ; serpent worship occurs. 
The Todas of the Nilgiri Hills are somewhat aberrant. 
They are strong, agile, intelligent, dignified, and cheerful. 
They are fully clothed, and are without weapons. They 
live a simple pastoral life and are concerned solely with 
the care of the dairy. They form a typical polyandrous 
community; when a woman marries it is understood that 
she becomes the wife of her husband's brothers (own or 
clan). Recently there is a tendency for polyandry to be 
associated with polygyny. Descent is patrilineal with 
few traces of mother-right. " It is doubtful whether 
crime can be said to exist among the Todas, they have a 
code of offences against the dairy, but these must be con- 
sidered as sins rather than as crimes " (Rivers). Gods 
once believed to be active and living among men have 
become shadowy beings ; there is no proof that the buffalo 
was ever regarded as a god ; ritual has killed the spirit 
of religion and in its turn is becoming perfunctory. 
Corpses are burnt. 

The Munda-speaking peoples are a very ancient element 
in the population and appear to have been the original 
inhabitants of the valley of the Ganges in Western 
Bengal ; after many wanderings they settled mainly in 
Chota Nagpur. Everywhere they have been more or less 
modified by the Dravidians, and while scattered relics of 
the languages are preserved, the original physical type 
appears to have been assimilated to that of the Dravid- 
ians, but perhaps it was originally a closely-allied type. 

Distribution of Races and Peoples 65 

They may belong to the primitive Indonesian race. The 
more important tribes are the Mundas, Bhumij, Ho, 
jfuangs, etc. Most are divided into exogamous septs, 
probably originally totemic. There is a vague supreme 
sun-god; human sacrifices were once offered. Memorial 
stones are erected. 

In Western Bengal the " Dravidian " element is more 
prominent in the population, but this is modified towards 
the east, and in Eastern Bengal Mongoloid characters 
predominate. The latter are the " Mongolo-Dravidians " 
of Risley. The majority of the people are agricultural. 


From very early times inhabitants of India proper 
migrated into the rich alluvial plains of Assam, many of 
whom mixed with the aboriginal population to form the 
" semi-Hinduized aborigines." Muhammadans are also 
especially numerous in the plains south of the Khasi 
hills. The Hinduized Meithis or ManipuH are a mixed 
people sprung from the Kukis in the south, the Nagas in 
the north, and Shan and Burmese in the east. 

The first Indo-Chinese invasion appears to have been 
by Tibeto-Burmans. At the end of the 8th Century a.d. 
the Shews began to conquer Assam. King Chukupha 
(A.D. 1228) assumed for himself and people the name of 
Aham, the peerless ; this is now softened to Assam. His 
successor adopted the Hindu religion, and the Aham 
Shans grew to be regarded as a new division of the 
Hindu Assamese population. This dynasty was over- 
thrown in 1810 by the Burmese; when various branches 

66 The Races of Man 

of the Tai or Shan stock, such as the Khamtis, Phakis 
and Kamjangs, came into the country. The A hams or 
Hindu Assamese are a strong, healthy race, now mostly 
poor cultivators; they are generally tall, and lighter than 
the Bengalis, with a flat face, high cheek bones, black 
and coarse hair, and scanty beard ; they are divided into 
castes ; they bury their dead. 

The hills were occupied by the British to protect the 
plains from the raids of the hill-tribes, who, from an 
ethnological point of view, form the most interesting 
section of the people. 

The Lusheis (sometimes called Kukis) of the Lushai 
Hills are a short Mongoloid people; who live in villages 
under an independent chief, but the people are very 
democratic. Rice is seldom cultivated on the same land 
two years running. The villages, which are on the tops 
of hills, are frequently removed. The houses are built 
on piles. There is a large house for young men and 
guests. They are only head-hunters incidentally. They 
believe in a supreme being, but the numerous spirits are 
more important. 

The Khasis of the Khasi Hills are distinctly Mongoloid. 
An immense number of exogamous septs, some totemic. 
Mother-right obtains, and males can own only self- 
acquired property. They worship ancestors, natural 
forces, and deities. Monoliths are often erected as 
cenotaphs, and there are numerous other stone 
erections. Their language belongs to the Mon-Khmer 
family, and is closely allied to the Palaung-Wa dialects 
of Burma. 

The Nagas " more closely resemble the natives of the 

Distribution of Races and Pboples 67 

Malayan Archipelago than any of the other races 
inhabiting the hills or plains of India and Assam " 
(Furness). The villages are on hill tops, with no marked 
tribal unity. Each village is divided into endogamous 
groups (khel) which contain several exogamous septs, 
but the latter may be scattered through several villages. 
Each khel (except among the Sema and Angami tribes) 
has its bachelors' house. Descent is reckoned through 
the father. They are monogamous. All are head- 
hunters. Mother-right obtains among the Garos and 

The Chiiigpos or Singplws arrived in Assam from the 
east of the upper waters of the Irawadi about 1793 A.D. 
They are the same people as the Chingpaw, Kachin or 
Kakhyen of North Burma, with tawny yellow to brown 
complexions, and marked Mongolian features. For 
several generations they were the terror of the country, 
carrying off people into slavery. Polygyny prevails. 
They have a confused notion of a supreme being, but 
propitiate only three malignant spirits or nhats. 

The Mishmis of the extreme north-east are constantly 
on the move in their trading expeditions. They attend 
to cultivation less than their neighbours, and count riches 
by the number of their half-wild cattle and their wives; 
the cattle are not used for agricultural purposes or for 
milk. Some have " almost Aryan features," and they 
are probably allied to the Mantse, a pre-Chinese people 
of South China, who originally came from the west. 

68 The Races of Man 


The original population may be represented by the 
Selung, the nomadic fishers of the Mergui Archipelago, 
who have no fixed villages and do not cultivate the soil. 
The men are below average size, vary from light to 
dark brown, and have long, lank black hair. They are 
regarded as being of Indonesian race, but there seems to 
be a Proto -Malay mixture. 

All the other peoples belong to the Indo-Chinese popu- 
lation and are grouped into Mon-Khmer, Tibcto-Burman 
and Siamese-Chinese sub-families. Probably 2,000-3,000 
years ago the coast was occupied by Indonesians and 
the interior by tribes speaking Mon-Khmer languages. 
From the North came the ancestors of the 
Tibeto-Burman and Tai peoples, who within the 
last fifteen centuries have flooded indo-China with 
successive swarms of conquerors and have received 
through Mon and Khmer channels a varnish of Indian 

Some believe that the Mon were the earlier settled 
race to whom the Talaing (Telinga or Klings) brought a 
civilisation from India about 1,000 B.C. The fused race is 
now known by either name. In dress and customs they 
resemble the Burmans. To this group belong the peace- 
ful, avaricious, sanctimonious Palanng of the Shan States; 
and the Wa tribes of the north-east frontier, who are 
brave, energetic, independent, un mercenary. The dark 
wild Wa are prosperous headhunters, who collect skulls 
as a protection against evil spirits, and are not habitual 
cannibals. The poor tame Wa are lighter in colour. 

Distribution of Races and Peoples 69 

The earliest seat of the Tibeto-Burman speaking peoples 
appears to have been the head-waters of the Yang-tse- 
Kiang. There is no proof that the Burmans reached the 
Irawadi Valley before 600 B.C. In the ninth century 
A.D. Burmans occupied the greater part of Upper Burma 
and the Mon were on the lower Irawadi, Sitang, and 
Salwin (the Khmer were then at the height of their 
power, with magnificent towns and temples in Cambodia). 
In the fourteenth century A.D. the Tai moved from Tali, 
overran North Burma and forced the Burmans down on 
the Mons. After much fighting, with varying successes, 
the Burmans merged with the Mons in the sixteenth 
century. The Burmans have marked Mongoloid char- 
acters. They are the most engaging race in the east, the 
men are unbusinesslike and courteous, with a great sense 
of humour, great pride of race and self-reliance, brave, but 
not fool-hardy. The Burmese nature is so essentially 
democratic that there is no indigenous caste system. 
The Burman is essentially an agriculturalist, but is lazy; 
they dress in brilliant colours. They live chiefly on rice 
with a few condiments and drink water. Their houses are 
of wood or bamboo and raised on posts ; but have masonry 
pagodas and temples. There are very numerous 
monasteries. The Burmans most nearly of all Buddhists 
follow the teaching of Buddha. No Burman is considered 
a human being till he has put on the yellow robe for a 
longer or shorter period; but their Buddhism is super- 
ficial, it being superimposed on an earlier and still strong 
belief in spirits (nats) ; and animism prevails every where. 

The Chingpaw, Chlngpo, Kakhyen, or Kachin of the 
extreme north are constantly moving southwards. They 

70 The Races of Man 

are pugnacious, vindictive, stiff-necked people, with a 
constant tendency to disintegration. The Chingpaw 
exhibit two types : one markedly Mongoloid, the other 
" much finer, with regular Caucasic features, long oval 
face, pointed chin, aquiline nose" (Keane). 

The Siamese-Chinese linguistic group comprises Tai 
or Shan, and the Karens. The Tai first appear in history 
in Yun-nan, south-west China, and early, small swarms of 
them entered Burma 2,000 years ago ; the foundation of 
the Tai principalities in the Salwin Valley took place 
about the third century A.D. ; a great wave of immigra- 
tion occurred in the sixth century; they peopled the Shan 
States. When the ' Mongol ' hordes under Kublai Khan 
in the latter half of the thirteenth century conquered 
% Indo-China, the Tai went westward and supplied kings to 
North Burma for two centuries. The Shans of Eastern 
Burma resemble the Burmans, but are fairer, mild and 
good-humoured; technically are fervent Buddhists. 
Their tendency has always been to fritter away their 
strength, as are always swarming. The Karen clans were 
driven south from China by the Tai, and later were 
driven back into the hills of the south-east by the Mons 
and the Burmans. There are two types, the White and 
Red Karens; sturdy race, straight black and brownish 
hair, black and hazel eyes ; " here also a Caucasic strain 
may be suspected" (Keane). 

The Negritoes of Asia. 

Flower regards them " as representing an infantile, 
undeveloped, or primitive form of the type from which 
the African Negroes on the one hand, and the Melane- 

Distribution of Races and Peoples 71 

sians on the other, with all their various modifications, 
may have sprung up." 


The inhabitants of the Andaman Islands were said to 
be formerly virtuous, modest, honest and frank. Con- 
jugal fidelity was the absolute rule, and divorce was 
formerly unknown. The women are on a footing of 
equality with the men and do their full share of work. 
The Andamanese have a sense of humour. They express 
any emotion whether of joy or sorrow by loud weeping. 

They live mainly on fish, wild yams, turtle, pig and 
honey. Their food is mostly eaten cooked. The men 
are hunters and collectors and do not till the soil, nor do 
they keep domestic animals. The men go nude, the 
women wear a small leaf apron ; both sexes wear a 
number of ornaments. 

They live in small encampments round an oval dancing 
ground, their huts being constructed of branches and 
leaves. Bows and arrows are used for hunting and fish- 
ing ; all their original implements were made of wood, 
bone or shell. They make canoes some of which have 
outriggers, but they never venture far from the shore. 
Pottery is made by the men. 

There is no organised polity in the Andamanese com- 
munity. There is generally one man who excels the rest 
in hunting, warfare, wisdom, and kindliness, and he is 
deferred to and becomes in a sense chief. A regular feature 
of Andamanese social life is the meeting at intervals 
between two or more communitcs. Marriage is strictly 


72 The Races of Man 

The Andamanese have a system of taboos on certain 
foods, notably turtle and pig, at those periods of life 
which they regard as critical. Disease and death are 
attributed to the spirits of jungle and sea, and after a 
death has taken place the camping place will be aban- 
doned for a fresh site. The Andamanese religious system 
is exceedingly primitive. There are certain spirits of sea 
and jungle whom they must avoid vexing ; chief of these 
is Biliku who controls the weather. Biliku is generally 
regarded as feminine and the north-east wind belongs to 
her, while her male counterpart Tarai owns the south-west 
wind. The spirits of the dead are believed by some tribes 
to haunt the jungle or the sea, and by others to repair to 
a place below the earth where there is a jungle. 

Semang of the Malay Peninsula. 

The Semang are a nomadic people living by collecting 
and hunting ; the wilder ones will often not remain longer 
than three days in one place. Very few have taken to 
agriculture. Their clothing consists of a girdle of leaves 
or a loin-cloth of tree bark. Their distinctive weapon is 
the bow with poisoned arrows. They are strictly mono- 
gamous and both sexes are faithful. 

There is a chief of each tribe who acts as chief 
medicine-man and exercises authority like the head of a 
family. All men are on an equal footing. Crime is rare ; 
theft is punished by a fine. All property is held in 
common. Barter in jungle produce is carried on with 
the Malays. 

A child is named after the tree near which it is born, 
the fruit of that tree being taboo to it. They have no 

Distribution of Races and Peoples 73 

great fear of the ghosts of the deceased. They have 
vague kind of deities, but there is no trace of an actual 
cult. They recognise the thunder god, Kari, who is the 
creator of most things and the judge of men. 

The Aket (Orang Raket), eastern of Sumatra, are 
closely allied to the Semang (Moszkowski). 

Aetas of the Philippines. 

The Aetas or Aitas are an indolent, timid and peaceful 
people, but become fierce and violent under provocation. 
They are somewhat inclined to be mischievous and 
thievish. They are fond of music and dances. They 
live mainly on game, fish, wild honey and forest products. 

One tribe file the front teeth to a point. Both men 
and women are scarified in certain parts of the body, 
but not tattooed. Various ornaments are worn. The 
women have bamboo combs thrust into their hair ; these 
are decorated with scratch-work patterns, and often 
plumes of hair and coloured feathers are attached to 
these. The men often wear circlets of boars' bristles 
round their calves. The normal dress of the men and 
boys is a perineal band of bark or cloth, that of the 
women a short skirt of the same. 

They are nomadic in habits, and live in rapidly con- 
structed huts with roofs of leaves or grass, beneath which 
will perhaps be sleeping platforms of poles. Their 
weapons are bows with poisoned arrows, and lances. 
They wander about in bands of fifty or more. Monogamy 
is the general rule, but polygyny may be indulged in if an 
individual has sufficient wealth. The dead are buried in 
the ground with more or less elaborate ceremonies. 

74 The Races op Man 

Malay Peninsula. 

In the north of the Malay Peninsula peoples of Indo- 
Chinese extraction prevail ; in the south three distinct 
races are represented : Negrito (Semang), Pre 
Dravidian (Sakai), and Indo-Chinese (Malay). 

The Semang have already been described. The Sakai 
or Senoi are largely nomadic, their agriculture being of 
the most primitive description, for which they usually 
employ a digging-stick; they frequently live in tree-huts 
or other temporary shelters. Men still wear the tree- 
bark loincloth and the women a tree-bark wrapper, but 
now both frequently wear Malay clothing. Their distinc- 
tive weapon is the blow pipe, which they have brought to 
a great perfection. They are strict in the observance of 
the marriage tie. They have the greatest possible fear 
of death, or rather of the ghost of the deceased, and seem 
to have a kind of deity. 

A third main element in the southern portion of the 
Malay Peninsula is that comprised by the ' Savage 
Malays ' or Jakun, many of which have mixed with 
Semangs and Sakais. They may be grouped under 
Orang Bukit (Land people) and Orang Laid (Sea people). 
Their skin is darker and their stature slightly shorter 
than that of the true Malays. They are largely nomadic, 
though the Land Jakun usually practise some form of 
agriculture; their clothing is like that of the Malays but 
scantier; they file their teeth but do not circumcise. The 
universal weapon of the jungle tribes is the blow-pipe 
with poisoned darts. The small huts are built on piles. 
They trade jungle produce with the Malays who oppress 

Distribution of Races and Peoples 75 

them. The Orang Laut are nomadic fishers, who occa- 
sionally live in temporary huts built on the ground, when 
they have occasion to build boats, mend nets, or collect 
dammar, etc. The Jakun, unlike the Malay, is hospitable 
and generous; childlike, and proud, he hates and fears 
the Malay, though he has to trade with him. The 
Malays despise and fear the Jakun, and attribute to them 
supernatural power and an unlimited knowledge of the 
secrets of nature. The Jakun acknowledge a supreme 
being, but are pagans, and devoutly believe in hantu 
(spirits and demons). 

The true Malay, who call themselves Orang Malayu, 
speak the standard, but quite modern, iMalay language, 
and are all Muhammadans. Originally they were an 
obscure tribe who rose to power in the Menangkabau 
district, Sumatra, not before the twelfth century, and 
whose migrations date only from about the year 1 160 A.D. 
(Keane). At this time Singapore was founded by them, 
when they professed some form of Hinduism; they were 
converted to Islam about the middle of the thirteenth 
century. The Malay is naturally of an easy-going, 
indolent character, deliberate, reserved and taciturn. 
The upper classes are exceedingly courteous, yet with 
this outward refinement they have the most pitiless 
cruelty and contempt of human life. They are false, 
wily, and very frugal. ' The patriotism, self-respect, 
reverence for immemorial law, loyalty to their rulers, 
traditions of courtesy and love of study for its own sake 
— things that contain the germ of national progress ' 
are admirable (Wilkinson). Nominally they are Moslems 
of the Sunnite sect, but lack the fanaticism of that 

76 The Races of Man 

religion; owing to their conservatism they are unwilling 
to give up any cult that they can possibly retain under a 
Muhammadan disguise, their demonology being made up 
of the strata of several successive religions. 


The natives of Borneo may be taken as a fair example 
of the distribution of races in the East Indian Archipel- 
ago, although, naturally, the conditions vary in different 

So far as our present knowledge goes, apart from 
obvious foreigners, there are only two races in Borneo, the 
dolichocephalic Indonesian and the brachycephalic Proto- 
Malay, but these are so intermixed that no tribe or people 
can be considered as a pure representative of either. 
The skin colour of the Borneans may be described as 
buff, in some quite light, in others light brown. The hair 
is usually wavy, and black with a reddish tinge. The 
stature varies from 1.42m. (4ft. 8in.) to 1.73m. (5ft. 8in.) 
the average being about 1.555m. (5ft. l^in.). Thecephalic 
index falls into two groups, 70-79 and 80-89. 

Scattered all over the interior, in the dense jungle, are 
the nomadic hunters, the Punans, Bakatans, Ukits, etc. 
The few wants of these mild and unwarlike savages are 
supplied by barter from friendly settled peoples. They 
are low brachycephals and may represent an aboriginal 

There are numerous, scattered, usually weak tribes, 
such as the Land Dayaks, Malanau, Kalabit, Dusun, and 
Murut, who, taken as a whole, are dolichocephals. 

Distribution of Races and Peoplbs 77 

They cultivate the soil, and are an amiable people, though 
given to head-hunting. The name Kalamantan has been 
given to this group of tribes. 

Occupying the more favourable inland country is the 
Kenyah-Kayan group, average cephalic index 80. They 
are a very energetic people who are extending their sway. 
They are well organised, have powerful chiefs, and smelt 
iron. They also are head-hunters. 

The Iban, or Sea Dayaks were originally a small coastal 
tribe, but through their truculence they have spread 
inland ; they are slightly darker than the inland people 
and have average cephalic index 83. Although 

essentially an agricultural people, they are warlike, and 
passionately devoted to head-hunting. It is probable 
that the Iban belongs to the same stock as the true 
Malay and his migration into Borneo may be regarded as 
the first wave of the movement that culminated in the 
Malay Empire. 

With the exception of the first group, all these peoples 
are agriculturists, living mainly on rice, which is usually 
grown on dry ground, but swamp rice is grown in the 
lowlands. They hunt all land animals which serve as food, 
and are fond of fish. They all live in long communal 
houses situated on the banks of the rivers. Some weave 
cotton cloths, those of the Iban being particularly beauti- 
ful. All are artistic. Their languages belong to the 
Indonesian group of the Austro-Asiatic division of the 
Austric family of languages. 

All their actions are regulated by omen animals, most 
of which are birds, who are possessed with the spirit of 
certain invisible beings above and bear their names, but 

78 The Races of Man 

the gods themselves are vague owing to the importance 
of their messengers. The Iban believe in individual 

The true Malays probably emigrated from the Malay 
Peninsula, they never penetrated into the interior, but 
certain coastal people have partly absorbed the Malay 
culture, spirit, and religion. 

The Chinese have long traded in Borneo, but they do 
not appear to have materially modified the population. 
Western Borneo has, however, been affected by the 
Indo-Javanese civilisation. 

So far as is known there is no indication in Borneo of 
a Negrito population, such as occurs in the Philippines 
and the Malay Peninsula, nor of a Vedda-like (Pre- 
Dravidian) element, such as P. Sarasin has recently 
found among Toala in Celebes, and Moszkowski among 
the Batin of Sumatra. 

Distribution of Races and Pboplbs 79 


It is a very difficult matter, with the facts at our dis- 
posal, to make a satisfactory classification of the 
American Indians, or Amerinds as they are sometimes 
termed. Usually the various peoples are grouped on a 
linguistic basis, but this system breaks down in California, 
where a large number of linguistic stocks are recognised 
without, however, there being a corresponding variation 
in physical type. A classification based on physical 
characters has already been given (pages 18, 19), but it 
also is unsatisfactory. A third method is based on 
geographical areas; this is convenient from a cultural 
point of view, and for lack of anything better this 
arrangement is provisionally adopted. 

North America. 

On geographical and cultural grounds the Indians of 

North America may be divided into the following groups : 

I. — Eskimo. 

II. — Tribes of the north Pacific coast. 

III. — Tribes of the northern interior (the Mackenzie 
River basin and the high plateaus). 

IV. — Tribes of the lower Pacific coast (Columbia River 

and California). 
V. — Tribes of the great plains. 
VI. — Northern and southern tribes of the eastern 

VII. — Tribes of the south-west and of Mexico. 

80 The Races of Man 

Eskimo or Innuits. 

The Eskimo are free, independent, happy, and ex- 
tremely gentle in character; wrangling and fighting are 
unknown among them. Crimes, if committed, go 
unpunished. Their women are treated as equals, 

They are essentially a littoral people, living primarily 
on sea mammals ; reindeer and other animals are hunted ; 
vegetable diet is inconsiderable. The whole community 
shifts its locality according to the season. In winter the 
houses of the northern and eastern tribes are hemi- 
spherical in form and built of snow, in summer of skins. 
The winter houses of the western Eskimo are of logs 
covered over with earth. Their clothes consist of skins, 
and they make use of dog-sledges and skin canoes con- 
structed on bone or wooden frameworks. They are 
clever carvers in bone and ivory and illustrate daily events 
by engravings on bone, and the Aleutian Islanders in par- 
ticular excel in basketry. They are extremely musical. 

The social organisation is based on the immediate 
family. Polygyny and polyandry occur though monogamy 
is the rule. The people group together in villages, but 
there is no sort of recognised authority; custom is the 
only law. All property, except clothes, hunting appliances, 
and sewing implements of the women, is the common 
possession of one or at most three families. Personal 
property generally descends to the eldest son, who is 
bound to provide for the rest of the family; among the 
western Eskimo it is divided among the children, the 
youngest son receiving the best weapons. 

1 111 

I - .> ... 

» © • * 




Plat j IX.] 

[Races of Man, p. 8o 

1 - 

< a i 

Distribution of Races and Peoples 81 

In religion shamanism is the rule, with a belief in 
guardian and hostile spirits. The shaman is termed 
" angekok," and may be of either sex. One spirit tends 
to predominate and to become the centre of the 
mythology. The western Eskimo attaeh great importance 
to the shades of deceased friends and also of animals. 

North Pacific Tribes. 

All the North Pacific tribes live by fishing ; river 
salmon and deep-sea fish are caught. Many are also 
hunters, and the women collect roots and berries. They 
make use of dug-outs, and their tackle consists of fish- 
hooks, spears, nets and lines. They build houses of cedar 
planks with roofs of bark, and part of the year is passed 
in permanent villages. Their industries are based largely 
on the yellow and red cedar. They have simple basketry, 
and stone implements, which are not chipped, and are 
frequently made of slate. Their decorative art is highly 
conventionalised and very characteristic. 

The Tlingit and Haida are divided into two exogamous 
moieties, the Tsimshian into four groups, which are to a 
limited extent totemic. The sub-groups are local, 
originally exogamic village communities of mainly 
matrilineal blood relatives. This system is less rigid 
among the southern peoples. Among the Kwakiutl a 
child belongs by blood to both father's and mother's 
family, but descent is practically matrilineal ; clan-legend 
and crest constitute title to property for men, and these 
are not inherited but acquired by marriage. The village 
communities are mainly exogamic. There are four 
classes of society-^chiefs, nobles, common people, and 

82 The Races of Man 

slaves. During the summer months society is organised 
on a totemic sept system ; during the winter ceremonial 
season the place of the sept is taken by a number of 
societies, namely the groups of all those individuals upon 
whom the same or almost the same power or secret has 
been bestowed by one of the spirits. 

They have a highly developed system of barter of which 
the blanket is now the unit of value, formerly the units 
were elk-skins, canoes and slaves; certain symbolic 
objects have attained fanciful values. A vast credit 
system has grown up, based on the custom of loaning 
property; the festival at which this occurs is called 
" potlatch." 

The religion of these peoples is bound up with their belief 
in animal helpers. Supernatural aid is given by the spirits 
to those who win their favour. The Kwakiutl believe 
their clans to have been founded by ancestors who had 
certain relations with supernatural beings and obtained 
from them crests, names, dances, etc. These spirits are 
supposed to visit the people every year. 

The raven is the chief figure in the mythology of this 
region ; he regulates the phenomena of nature, procures 
fire, daylight and freshwater, and teaches men the arts. 
In some places the mink assumes this role, or the bluejay. 

Indians of the Northern Interior, or Athapascans. 

These tribes are more correctly termed Dene. The 
northern Dene are timid, cowardly, honest, and formerly 
chaste; the southern are more manly. All are by neces- 
sity hunting and fishing peoples, but the northern tribes 
are among the most primitive of all American stocks. 



[Races of Man. 

Distribution of Races and Peoples 83 

These make rude pottery and weave a sort of cloth. The 
eastern Dene are patrilineal, nomad hunters, who gather 
berries and roots. The western are semi-sedentary 
owing to the abundance of salmon ; they are divided into 
exogamous, matrilineal, totemic clans. There is a belief 
in guardian spirits, and shamanism obtains. The 
mythology almost always refers to a " transformer " 
who visited the world when incomplete and set things 
in order. 

Tribes of the Pacific Coast. 

The Salish tribes are closely allied to the Athapascans. 
The coastal Salish have abundance of fish, especially 
salmon; they have reached considerable prosperity and 
are lavish in their display of wealth. The advantage of 
location and facility of communication by canoes enabled 
them to become relatively civilised, as is shown by their 
social organisation with its rigid castes, their village life, 
secret societies and greater skill in decorative art. 

The plateau Salish are more democratic, less settled, 
and more individualistic in religious matters than the 
coastal. The previous totemism is largely replaced by a 
belief in supernatural helpers, personifications of ' sulia,' 
or that mystery which prevades North American religion. 
The system of obtaining supernatural aid is more 
developed on the coast, where the ' sulia ' becomes 
hereditary in families, and its emblem persists as the 
family crest. 

The Californian tribes fall, both culturally and linguis- 
tically into three groups, of which the central is much 
the largest, the culture of that area being more general in 

84 The Races of Man 

type. These tribes are characterised by their use of 
the acorn for food and the absence of the canoe. The 
chief tribe of this group, the Maidu, practises an annual 
ceremony of " burning," when the property of those who 
have died within the past five years is destroyed so that 
the articles may pass to the spirit world for use by the 
owner. The north-western and south-western groups 
are mainly differentiated from the central by their 
dependence on fish for food, and by the extensive use of 
the canoe. 

South of the Salish, and east of the Californian areas 
lie the Shahaptian and the vast Shoshonean tracts of 
country, the latter extending to the coast in the south of 
California. The culture of these peoples is distinguished 
by an extremely loose social organisation, lack of elabor- 
ate ceremonials, a completely different style of art, and^ 
possibly, a mythology rather resembling that of the tribes 
of the east than the north-west coast type (Farrand). 

The Lower Californians belong to the Yuman family ; 
they are a collecting people of very low stage of cultural 
and linguistic development. 

The Seri of north-west Mexico are the least advanced 
and most isolated tribe in North America. Their most 
esteemed virtue is shedding alien blood, and their 
blackest crime is alien marriage. Mother-right obtains 
perhaps to a greater extent than in any known people, 
and it is only in the chase or on the war-path that men 
come to the front. Polygyny prevails. The tribe is com- 
posed of exogamic, m at ri lineal, totemic clans. Most of 
their food is eaten raw ; they do not cultivate the soil, and 
the dog is the only domestic animal. Their houses are 

Distribution of Races and Peoples 85 

flimsy huts. They make pottery, and rafts of canes. 
Bows and arrows are extensively used ; there is no knife. 

Tribes of the Great Plains. 

These tribes contain representatives of various stocks, 
but chiefly Siouan, Caddoan or Pawnee, Algonquian and 
Kiowan. The Sioux may serve as typical. They were a 
free and dominant race of hunters and warriors, neces- 
sarily strong and active. Their habits centred round the 
buffalo, which provided the staple materials of nutrition 
and industry. The dog was domesticated before the 
horse was acquired in the eighteenth century. They also 
made use of nuts, berries and roots for food, but did not 
cultivate the soil to any extent. Their houses consisted 
of tent-shaped huts of saplings covered with brush, bark 
or skins when in the woodlands ; on the plains earth 
lodges were built for winter, and tipis, or tents of long 
poles covered with skin, or in later times canvas, for 
summer. Their weapons were tomahawk, club, flint 
knife, and bow and arrow ; they were made of stone, 
wood, bone and horn. Rude pottery and basketry were 
made but wood and skins were the raw materials of 
domestic appliances. Drawing and painting were done on 
prepared buffalo skins, and elaborately carved pipes were 
made for ceremonial use. 

The Sioux were divided into kinship groups, with 
inheritance as a rule in the male line. The woman was 
autocrat of the home. Exogamy was strictly enforced in 
the clan, but marriage within the tribe or with related 
tribes was encouraged. The marriage was arranged by 
the parents, and polygyny was common where means 



85 The Races of Man 

would permit. Government consisted in chieftainship 
acquired by personal merit. The older men exercised 
considerable influence. 

Ownership of land was vested in the group who 
occupied it. Food was shared in common, the procurer 
having special privileges. Huts, dogs, weapons, etc., 
were personal property, and such possessions were 
destroyed at the death of the owner to provide for his 
wants in the spirit-world. 

Their religious conceptions were based upon a belief 
in " Wakanda " or " Manitou," an all-pervadir^ 
spiritual entity, whose cult involved various shamanistic 
ceremonials consisting of dancing, chanting, feasting and 
fasting. Most distinctive of these was the sun-dance, 
practised by almost all the tribes of the plains except the 
Comanche. It was an annual festival in honour of the sun 
lasting four days, characterised in the later stages by 
personal torture. 

The Pawnee tribes were probably of southern origin. 
They were more addicted to agriculture than the Sioux, 
raising crops of maize, pumpkins and squashes. The 
Pawnee type of hut was characteristic, consisting of a 
circular framework of poles or logs covered with bush, 
bark and earth. They were divided into kinship groups, 
distinguished by totems, and inheritance was in the male 
line. The tribes were divided into bands under a chief, 
whose office was hereditary in the male line and whose 
power was more absolute than usual among Indians. Their 
religious ceremonials were similar to but more elaborate 
than those of the Sioux, and were formerly distinguished 
by human sacrifices to the morning star at the annual 

on of Races and Peoples 87 

corn-planting, the victim being usually a captive girl from 
a hostile tribe (Farrand). 

Northern Tribes of the Eastern Woodlands. 

These consist of Algonquians and Iroquois. The 
Ojibwa, the chief central Algonquian tribe, were a typical 
people of the woods. The northern branch were mild, 
harmless hunters, the southern led a sort of sedentary 
life part of the time ; maize, pumpkins, and beans were 
cultivated, and wild rice collected ; much of the food was 
obtained by hunting and fishing. They were hard 
fighters and beat back the raids of the Iroquois on the 
east and of the Foxes on the south, and drove the Sioux 
before them out of the plains. They were organised in 
many exogamous clans ; descent was patrilineal, though 
matrilineal in most of the other tribes. The clan system 
was totemic. There was a clan chief and generally a 
tribal chief as well, chosen from one clan in which the 
office was hereditary. His authority was rather 
indefinite. As regards the religion of this group "there 
was a firm belief in a cosmic mystery present through- 
out all Nature; it was called Manitou. It was natural to 
identify the Manitou with both animate and inanimate 
objects, and the impulse was strong to enter into 
personal relation with the mystic power. There was one 
personification of the cosmic mystery, it was into an 
animate being called the Great Manitou " (VV. Jones). 

The famous League of the Iroquois was formed 
between 1400 and 1450 A.D. Each of the five tribes 
remained independent in matters of local concern, but 
supreme authority was delegated to a council of elected 


83 The Races op Man 

sachems. So successful was this confederacy that for 
l centuries it enjoyed complete supremacy over its neigh- 
's bours, until it controlled the country from Hudson Bay 
. to North Carolina. The powerful Ojibwa at the east of 
Lake Superior checked their north-western expansion, 
and their own kindred, the Cherokee, stopped their pro- 
gress southwards. The Hurons were practically wiped 
out by them. They lived in " long houses " of related 
families, over which a matron presided; they afford 
an exceedingly good example of mother-right. The clans 
(i;ens of Morgan), which were always exogamous, were 
organised into phratries, which were also originally 
exogamous, but this restriction has long since been 
removed except in the case of the clans. The phratries 
had no strictly governmental functions, and appear chiefly 
in religious ceremonies and games. 

Tribes of the South-west. 

These may be grouped into two classes according to 
their mode of living — pueblo and non-pueblo peoples. A 
•'pueblo" is a village of a communal type consisting of 
houses of five or six storeys arranged along courts or 
passageways, each storey being a separate residence, 
often reached from the roof of the one below. The 
Pueblo Indians are muscular and capable of great 
endurance, being able to carry heavy burdens and walk 
and run' for long distances. They are mild and peace- 
able in disposition, industrious, and intensely conservative 
in their customs. They depend mainly on agriculture, 
raising crops of corn, cotton, melons, beans, tobacco, 
peaches, etc. The men do spinning, weaving, and knitting, 

Distribution of Races and Peoples 89 

and make cotton and woollen garments. The women 
build and own the houses, grind the meal, prepare the 
food, and carry the water ; in addition they make pottery 
which has become famous for its quality and decoration. 
Each pueblo village has a peace-chief or governor and 
councillors, and a war-chief. The clans are numerous 
and form the entire basis of their social and religious 
organisation. Marriage is monogamous, the children 
belonging to the mother's clan and the daughters 
inheriting her property. Private property in land is not 

The Pueblo Indians are very religious, much of their 
time being spent in elaborate ceremonials which are very 
complex, sometimes lasting over a week. These are 
controlled by secret societies or priesthoods, of which 
there are several in each village. The purpose of the 
ceremonies is to obtain rain, the very existence of the 
Pueblo Indians being dependent on the crops, notably 

Central America. 

The greater part of southern Central America is 
inhabited by the Maya race, a branch of which formerly 
extended on to the plateau of Mexico, and was known as 
the Toltecs. North and south of these latter were, and to 
some extent still are, the Otomi, Tarasco, Mistcca, and 
Zapoteca peoples. A thousand years ago the western 
half of Northern Mexico was occupied by the Nahua, 
one tribe of whom, the Aztecs, pressed the aboriginal 
population of Southern Mexico before them, and 

90 The Races of Man 

established themselves on the plateau, where they 
founded the city of Mexico. The Toltecs disappeared as 
such, but their culture was assimilated by the ruder 
Aztecs; the descendants of the former are still to be 
found in Guatemala and Yucatan, and are now merged 
among their Maya kinsfolk. The remarkable culture 
that the Spaniards found in Mexico was due mainly to 
the intelligent and gifted Maya peoples ; it was entirely 
indigenous, and owed nothing to the culture of the 
Pueblo Indians of New Mexico and Arizona, or to the 
civilisations of the Andean regions of South America. 
The Nahua or Nahuatlaca appear to have come originally 
from the far north. 

South America. 

Following Deniker the natives may be grouped accord- 
ing to the four great natural regions: — (1) the Cordillera 
of the Andes; (2) the plains of the Amazon and the 
Orinoco, with Guiana; (3) the table-lands of eastern and 
southern Brazil ; (4) the Pampas of the southern part of 
the continent, with Tierra del Fuego. 

The Cordillera of the Andes. 

The ancient Andean civilisation was the highest 
expression of South American culture. The peoples of 
this region consist mainly of members of the Chibcha 
and Quichua linguistic families, with a certain number of 
unclassified tribes. The most powerful of the former 
group were the Muyscas of the Rio Magdalena valley, 
who were dominant in the north with an organised 
system of government on the Bogota table-land. They 

Distribution of Races and Peoples 91 

were surrounded by numerous kindred tribes, still in a 
condition of savagery. The rigid caste system of the 
Muyscas stifled their development, and they are now 

The Quichua dialects are still spoken over the area of 
the ancient Inca empire, which was almost contiguous in 
the north with that of the Muyscas. Three distinct 
civilisations had grown up about three cultural centres : 
that of the Yuncas (whom Deniker is unable to classify) 
developed about Chimu (Trujillo of the present day) ; 
that of the Aymaras, a people of Quichuan stock, about 
Tiahuanaco on the southern shores of Lake Titicaca; 
and that of the Quichuas about Cuzco. Prior to the 
arrival of the Europeans, however, the first two had been 
absorbed by the third, and the whole area constituted 
the empire of the Incas, who were the dominant branch 
of the Quichuan nation. The very name " Inca " was 
afterwards restricted to the royal family. The Incas also 
conquered the Calchaquis, another Quichua-speaking 
race, the most numerous and highly civilised of the 
former inhabitants of Argentina. The Quichuas are 
fairly uniform physically ; they are of low stature, 
1-575-1 -6m. (5ft. 2-3in.), thickset and very strong, with 
massive globular head, aquiline nose, and retreating 
forehead due to cranial deformation. 

Among the unclassified Andean peoples mention must 
be made of the Araucanians (or Mapu-che) whose 
territory extended south of the Peruvian empire, and who 
held their own against the Incas and after them the 
Conquistadores. They were little organised in time of 
peace, and their tribal groups at the present day are mere 

92 The Races of Man 

territorial divisions, such as Picun-che (north-men), 
Huilli-che (south-men), Molu-che (west-men), Puen-che 
(pine-men, i.e., people of the central pine country). The 
Puel-che (east-men) of the eastern slopes of the Andes 
afterwards moved down the Rio Negro and encountered 
the Pampean Indians with whom they mingled. The 
Araucanians have now adopted the peaceful pursuits of 
agriculture and stock-breeding, and the process ot 
assimilation, completed in the Chiloe and Chonos 
Archipelagoes, is likely to spread on the mainland. 

Before dealing with the two next great divisions, which 
include the Amazonians and the peoples of eastern 
Brazil and of central South America, reference must be 
made to the race migrations which have taken place 
throughout this vast area. The two chief linguistic sub- 
divisions of the Amazonians are the Carib and the 
Arawak, while the two main groups of East-Brazilians 
are the Tupi-Guarani (or Tupi), and the Ges (or Tapuya). 
The original home of the Arawaks was probably Bolivia, 
whence they spread east, north-east, and south-east, 
forming a uniform substratum over a large part of the 
north of South America; their progress was only stayed 
where they encountered the Caribs and Tupis. The 
Caribs originally inhabited the upper courses of the 
Tapajos and other rivers flowing northward into the 
lower Amazon, up which they moved to the mouth of the 
Amazon. The Tupis peopled the upper basin of the 
Paraguay, not far from the original Carib region; they 
moved downstream to the Rio de la Plata, turning north- 
ward at the mouth and skirting the whole coast of Brazil 

Distribution of Races and Peoples 93 

till they reached the mouth of the Amazon, There they 
met with the Carihs whom they forced to turn north- 
wards, while they themselves passed along the southern 
bank of the Amazon, the Arawaks being on the northern. 
Tupi tribes (Omaguas and Cocamas) even reached as far 
west as the Putumayo and the Maranon. The Caribs 
pushed the Arawaks before them, ultimately prevailing 
from the mouth of the Amazon to the Lago de 
Maracaibo. Their conquest of the Arawaks of the 
Antilles was arrested at the Discovery. The Ges peoples 
lived in Brazil from the earliest times, but took no active 
part in history. It is possible that they once extended 
all over Brazil from the Amazon watershed to the 
Parana, but at the time of the Conquest they only 
inhabited the hill country of the interior. 

The Plains of the Amazon and the Orinoco 
with Guiana. 

The northern part of South America east of the 
Cordilleras is peopled mainly by Caribs and Arawaks, 
but about the head-waters of the Amazon and its 
tributaries are tribes of the Miranha and Pano linguistic 
families, and some unclassified peoples occur there and 
in the basin of the Orinoco. 

The northern Caribs are l*594m. (5ft 2fin.) in height 
with a cephalic index of 81*3 ; those of the Xingu are 
taller, l*664m. (5ft. 5 Jin.), with a cephalic index of 79*6. 
The Caribs were formerly cannibals, and most ferocious in 
their methods of warfare especially towards the Arawaks. 
The following ethnical characteristics of the Caribs may 

94 The Races of Man 

be noted : — the use of the hammocks, painting of the 
body, practice of couvade (lying-in of the father after the 
birth of a child) ; the chief weapon under primitive con- 
ditions is the stone axe, but the northern Caribs use the 
blow-pipe and poisoned arrows which are unknown to the 
southerners, who use the bow and arrow. The Bakairi 
of the upper Xingu are a typical primitive Carib tribe. 
They are hunters and fishers, and to some extent agri- 
culturists as well. Their clothing is of the slightest, but 
they are fond of shell or seed necklaces; their huts are 
beehive-shaped ; implements are personal property, but 
plantations belong to the community; chieftainship is 
hereditary from father to son or to sister's son. They 
have very little religion, and their remarkable mask- 
dances do not appear to have much ceremonial 

The difference between the northern and southern 
Avawaks is more pronounced than with the Caribs; those 
of Guiana and also of the Purus basin (western Brazil) 
are l-55-l-59m. (5ft. l-2^in.) in height, with a cephalic 
index of 83-4, while the Arawaks of the Xingu are taller, 
l-64m. (5ft. 4 Jin.), and have a cephalic index of 78*2. 
The blow-pipe is used only by the upper Amazon tribes ; 
garments are of fibre or bark-cloth, and ornaments of 
feathers and teeth ; their implements are of wood and 

The Pano tribes are in a state of transformation, some 
having taken to trading and agriculture. The Miranhas 
are a primitive and warlike hunting people, distinguish- 
able by their peculiar nose-ornament, large shell studs 
being inserted in the nostrils. Among the unclassified 

Distribution of Races and Peoples 95 

tribes of the Amazon head-waters, the Zaparos (or 
Jeberos) are remarkable on account of their shamanistic 
religion, and the Jevaros (or Civaros) for their practice 
of head-hunting, the scalps of their enemies being 
preserved and regarded as valuable trophies. 

There are four main linguistic groups of peoples in 
Guiana: — Warrau, Arawak, Wapiana (including true 
Wapiana, Atorais and Amaripas), and Carib (including 
Carinya or true Carib, Ackawoi, Macusi, and Arecuna). 
who all belong to the same race. The coast tract is in- 
habited by Warraus and Arawaks, with scattered settle- 
ments of Carinya. The forest region is almost entirely 
inhabited by Ackawoi, with a few Carinya camps. The 
savanna region, beginning with the north towards the 
Orinoco, is peopled by various tribes: — Arecunas, 
Macusis, Wapianas Tarumas (a tribe of unknown 
affinities, which came from the south), and an isolated 
tribe of Caribs. 

The natives are all of small stature; the main 
characters are a protuberant stomach from excessive 
drinking of paiwari (an intoxicant made by chewing 
cassava bread), and sleekness and fulness of skin from 
eating cassava. The skin is of a red cinnamon colour, 
the hair straight, long and black, the features gentle. 
They are weak in constitution. Their habits are 
exceptionally cleanly. They are affectionate in domestic 
relations, and their women are well treated, and have 
considerable influence, but old people are not well 

The men are hunters, and the women cultivate cassava. 
The clothing of the men is a strip of cloth passed between 

96 The Races of Man 

the legs and fastened to a belt ; that of the women, an 
apron of beads. The houses are built on piles in the 
swamps ; in the forests they are usually rectangular, 
with a ridge-pole, and roofed with palm leaves. On the 
savannas, walls daubed with mud are added. Their 
weapons are the bow and arrow, and blow-pipe. 

The father is the head of the household, and the chief 
authorities in a group are the headman and the peaiman 
(or medicine-man). Most tribes are polygynous, but the 
Caribs are mainly monogamous; the polygynous Warrau 
are also polyandrous. Marriage is mostly a matter of 
purchase, and the husband lives with, works for, and is 
subject to his father-in-law. Descent is reckoned through 
the mother. The custom of carefully tending the father 
on the birth of a child (couvade) prevails. Religion 
consists mainly in the propitiation of evil spirits by 
mediation of the peaiman. 

Very scanty information exists on the natives of the 
West Indies. The peaceful Arawaks appear to have 
been the aboriginal inhabitants, the islands being invaded 
later by the piratical and slave-hunting Caribs. St. 
Vincent and Dominica were the principal rendezvous of 
the insular Caribs, although they occupied all the islands 
from Puerto Rico to the Orinoco, and raided at times 
Jamaica and San Domingo, but had no permanent 
villages north of Jamaica; a few still exist in St. Vincent 
and possibly elsewhere. The « Yellow Caribs ' must be 
distinguished from the ' Black Caribs' or Karifs, who are 
a Carib-Negro mixture. 

Distribution of Races and Peoples 97 

Eastern and Southern Brazil. 

Eastern Brazil is mainly occupied by peoples of the 
Ges family, formerly called Tapnyas. This region is 
poor in resources, and the people are generally 
more backward than the Amazonians. Ethnical 
characteristics common to these tribes are: — communal 
houses with separate hearths for the various families, 
absence of the hammock, ignorance of navigation, 
wearing of plugs (botoques) in the lower lip or ears, 
arrows barbed on one side. The best known element 
in this group is the Botocudo people. They are 
nomad hunters and collectors, with implements 
of wood and vegetable fibre, living in flimsy huts of 
branches. They go nude, and wear the teeth of those 
they have eaten strung on necklaces. They are cannibals, 
eating both enemies and fellow tribesmen. Their women 
are brutally treated. They are of low stature, l*59m. 
(5ft. 2^in.), and have relatively narrow heads, their 
cephalic index varying from about 76 to 78. Many of 
the Brazilian tribes have dwindled to a few individuals 
living under the protection of the white man. 

Tupi tribes speaking various dialects occur in different 
parts from Guiana to Paraguay, and from the coast of 
Brazil to the Cordilleras. At the time of the Conquest 
they were cannibals occupying the Atlantic coast from the 
Para to 24° south latitude, and the Amazon valley up to 
60° west longitude. They were largely exterminated by 
the Portuguese, but their language became the means of 
communicating with the Indians of Brazil and Paraguay. 

98 The Races of Man 

The eastern, or Guarani Tupis, formerly very numer- 
ous in South Brazil, now fqrm a considerable proportion 
of the population of ParaguaWind Missiones (Argentina). 
Those of Paraguay have become largely hispanified. 
Some forest tribes retain the real type, such for instance 
as the Cainguas or Kaigguas, who are scattered about in 
small groups over the southern jjart of the region men- 
tioned. They are short (5ft. 3in.)7\ith a cephalic index 
of 80-4, bronzed skin, lank or wavy hair, and prominent 
cheekbones. They go almost nude ; fire is obtained by 
friction; they are agriculturists, weavers and potters. 
Other members of the eastern Tupi group are the 
Tacunas and Jacunda of the lower Xingu, the Kamayuras 
of the upper Xingu, the Mauhes between that river and 
the Madeira, the Apiacas of the Tapajos, and the 
Chiquitos and Chiriguanos of Bolivia ; the last two are 
now largely hispanified. 

The western Tupis comprise the Mundurukus of the 
middle Tapajos, and the Yurunas and Aueto of the Xingu. 
The Miuidur.ukus are head-hunters of extreme ferocity in 
warfare ; the rank of chief is attained by the capture of 
at least ten heads. Youths go through an initiation cere- 
mony in the form of a glove-dance ; the bachelors live in 
separate huts. 

In addition to Caribs, Arawaks, Ges, and Tupis, there 
are representatives of other ethnic groups to be met with 
in Matto Grosso and south-eastern Bolivia. The more 
important of these are the Karayas, of whom there are two 
sections knowing nothing of each other, one in the Xingu 
valley, the other in that of the Araguaya. They are of 
medium height, and narrow head (cephalic index 73). 

Distribution of Races and Peoples 99 

They do not use hammocks, are good navigators, and the 
women speak a different language from the men, appar- 
ently an older form. The Trumai of the upper Xingu 
are short, with medium heads (cephalic index 81-1), 
retreating forehead and convex nose. The Bororos are 
scattered from the upper Paraguay to the upper Parana. 
They are tall, l*74m. (5ft. 8 Jin.), with a cephalic index 
of 81-5. They are a purely hunting and collecting people, 
who never practise agriculture, nor have they domestic 
animals. They do not use canoes. The women wear a 
broad tight belt and perineal band, the men a narrow 
belt. They are very fond of feather decorations ; both 
sexes pierce the lobe of the ear, and the men bore the 
lower lip. The men live in a clubhouse, and do not settle 
down and marry till they are about forty, when they live 
in very poor huts. They sometimes capture women and 
take them to the clubhouse. The married men arrange 
the affairs of the community, and a chief commands in 
war. The dead are temporarily buried, and later there 
is a special funeral ceremony. The souls of the dead are 
believed to enter the bodies of birds. 

The Pampas of the South, with Tierra del Fnego. 

This division comprises the great plain beyond 30° 
south latitude, which passes from the rich pasturage of 
Gran Ch'aco to Pampas, and then to the bare plateaus of 
Patagonia. The inhabitants of the plain are nomadic 
and pastoral in their way of life since the introduction of 
the horse. Only hybridised descendants remain of the 
ancient peoples who lived here and in Uruguay at the time 

100 The Races of Man 


of the Conquest, such as the Talhuets and Abipones, 
who represent some of the old members of the 
Guaycuru family. This family still survives in its pure 
form in some Chaco tribes, such as the Tobas, 
Matacos, and Payaguas ; others, such as the Lenguas, 
Sanapanas, and Angaites, belong to the Ennema 
linguistic family. South of the Chaco, in the Pampas 
and the north Patagonian tableland, the Guaycurus of 
the north, and the Patagonians of the south, have 
been absorbed or modified by the Araucanians from 
the west, and the Europeans from the east. New 
tribes have thus arisen, such as the Puel-che from 
Patagonians, and Araucanians with a Guaycuru strain, 
and Gauchos from Guaycurus and Europeans. To 
avoid confusion it must be noted that the term Puel-che 
(east-men) was applied first to the pure Araucanians 
of the east side of the Andes, and then to the 
Pampeans, and is still used indiscriminately for the 
pure Araucanians of the Argentine Republic, Pampeans, 
and nomads generally as far south as the Rio 

The Europeans gradually pushed the Puel-che and 
Araucanians southward, the Pampeans migrating en 
masse in 1881 beyond the Rio Negro, where they 
mingled with some of the Patagonians and drove the 
rest beyond the Rio Santa Cruz. Some two thousand 
Patagonians, or Tehuel-che, now live between this river 
and the Strait of Magellan. Those inland and the Onas 
of Tierra del Fuego best preserve the Patagonian type. 
They are very tall, l-73-l-83m. (5ft. Sin. or 6ft.), according 
to different accounts, with a cephalic index of 85, 

Plate X.] 


[Races of Man, p. 100. 

Distribution of Races and Peoples 101 


elongated face, slightly oblique eyes, prominent cheek 
bones, black lank hair, and dark coppery complexion* 
They subsist mainly on the flesh of the guanaco and 
other wild animals ; horse-flesh is also used by some ; a 
few wild vegetables are eaten, but nothing is cultivated* 
They are a well-clothed people, not even the children go 
nude ; silver ornaments are worn. Their dwellings are 
leather tents or brushwood huts, and characteristic 
weapons are lassos and bolas. They are divided into a 
number of independent clans, each with its hereditary 
chief with somewhat restricted power. They believe in 
demons, over which medicine-men are supposed to have 
power. The dead were till recently buried in a sitting 
posture, and weapons were also put in the grave. 

The Fuegians inhabit the south and west of Tierra del 
Puego and the off-lying archipelagoes. They consist of 
two tribes, the Yaligans and the Alakalufs, of whom 
the former are probably the true aborigines and may be 
taken as typical of the Fuegians. They are of low 
stature, with a large head, angular face, short nose 
depressed at root and wide at nostrils, large thick lips, 
and small black eyes often obliquely set. Their food 
consists mainly of mussels and animal food, but berries 
are eaten in summer and roots in winter. They were 
said formerly to eat their old women. They have no 
kitchen utensils nor pottery. As clothing they wear a 
small piece of skin over the shoulders, and the women 
have in addition a very short narrow apron. Their 
dwellings are flimsy huts, made of logs and branches. 
Hunting is undertaken by the men and fishing by the 
women. They make perishable bark canoes. Monogamy 


102 The Races of Man 

is the general rule. They do not recognise virtue, but 
they do not practise vice. Modesty is strongly 
developed ; compassion is almost unknown. They are 
courageous, vain, and susceptible. Lying is no evil, but 
the murderer is banned by all. 


This Bibliography is intended merely as a guide to the 
elementary student, and only those books are included 
which have reference to my immediate object, as further 
references to other books or to memoirs and papers will be 
found in them. As this little book is designed to help the 
beginner in ethnology, very few references are made to 
works in other languages. The Journal of the Royal 
Anthropological Institute is a mine of information, as are 
the journals of kindred foreign societies. The numerous 
books by travellers and missionaries, which deal with 
special areas and peoples, should also be consulted. 


Deniker, J.— "The Races of Man," 1900. 
Duckworth, W. L. H. — " Morphology and 

Anthropology," 1904. 
Haddon, A. C.— "The Study of Man," 1898. 
Keane, A. H.— " Ethnology," 1901 ; " Man : Past and 

Present," 1905; "The World's Peoples," 1908. 
Ratzel, P. —"The History of Mankind" (translation), 

Reclus, J. J. E.— "The Earth and its Inhabitants" 

(translation), 1875. 
Ripley, W. Z.— "The Races of Europe," 1900. 
Topinard, P. — "Anthropology" (translation), 1890. 
Tylor, E. B.—" Anthropology," 1895. 

103 H 

104 Bibliography 

Wiedersheim, R. — "The Structure of Man " (trans- 
lation), 1895. 
Wood, J. G.— "The Natural History of Man." 

Other books that should be consulted are : — " The 
World's History," editor, Helmolt, H. F. (various 
volumes); "Stanford's Compendium of Geography and 
Travel " (various volumes) ; " The Living Races of 



• Curr, E. M.— " The Australian Race," 1886-87. 
Gennep, A. Van. — " Mythes et Legendes d'Australie : 

etudes d'Ethnographie et de Sociologie," 1906. 
Howitt, A. W. — "The Native Tribes of South-east 

Australia," 1904. 
Mathew, J.—" Eaglehawk and Crow," 1899. 
Roth, W. E.— " Bulletins of North Queensland 

Ethnography," 1901. 
Smyth, R. B.— " The Aborigines of Victoria," 1878. 
Spencer, B., and Gillen, F. J. — "The Native Tribes 

of Central Australia," 1899; "The Northern 

Tribes of Central Australia," 1904. 
-Thomas, N. W.— " Natives of Australia," 1906; 

" Kinship Organisation, etc., in Australia," 1906. 

Papuans and Melanesians. 

- Codrington, R. H.— " The Melanesians," 1891. 
Guppy, H. B.— "The Solomon Islands," 1887. 
- Haddon, A. C— " Head-hunters," 1901; "Reports 
Cambridge Expedition to Torres Straits." 
Parkinson, R. — " Dreissig Jahre in der Sudsee," 

Roth, H. L.— "The Aborigines of Tasmania," 1889. 
Sande, G. A. J. van der — "Nova Guinea, III. 
Ethnography and Anthropology," 1907. 

Bibliography 105 

Thomson, B.— " The Fijians," 1908. 
Thomson, J. P.—" British New Guinea," 1892. 
Williams, T. and Calvert, J. — " Fiji and the Fijians," 


Ellis, W. — "Polynesian Researches, etc.," 1831. 
Fornander, A.—" An Account of the Polynesian 

Race," 1878-85. 
Gill, W. W. — "Myths and Songs from the South 

Pacific," 1876. 

* Grey, G.— " Polynesian Mythology," 1853. 
Lesson, P. A.—" Les Polynesiens," 1880-84, 
Mariner, W. — "An Account of the Natives of the 

Tonga Islands," 1818. 
Smith, S. P.—" Hawaiki," 1904. 
Taylor, R.— " Te Ika a Maui," 1855. 
Turner, G. — " Nineteen Years in Polynesia," 1861 ; 

"Samoa," 1884. 



Johnston, H. H.— "The Uganda Protectorate," 1902. 
Stanley, H. M.— " In Darkest Africa," 1890. 

Bushmen and Hottentots. 

• Stow, G. W. — " The Native Races of South Africa," 

Theal, C. M'C. — " History and Ethnography of 
South Africa," 1907. 

Bant us. 

Callaway, H.—" Nursery Tales, etc,," 1868; "The 
Religious System of the Amazulu," 1870. 
» Casati, G. — "Ten Years in Equatoria" (translation), 
Cassalis, E. — "The Basutos " (translation), 1861. 

106 Bibliography 

Johnston, H. H. (I.e.) 

Junod, H. A.— "Les Ba-Ronga," 1898. 

Kidd, D.— "The Essential Kafir," 1904; "Savage 

Childhood," 1906; "Kafir Socialism." 1908. 
Macdonald, D.— " Africana," 1882. 
Stow (I.e.), Theal (I.e.) 
Werner, A. — "The Natives of British Central 

Africa," 1906. 


Dennett, R. E.— " At the Back of the Black Man's 
Mind," 1906. 

Ellis, A. B.— "The Tshi-speaking Peoples," 1887; 

"The Ewe," 1890; "The Yoruba," 1894. 
Johnston, H. H.— " Liberia," 1906. 
Kingsley, M.— "West African Studies," 1901. 
Leonard, A. G.— " The Lower Niger," 1906. 
Nassau, R. H.— " Fetichism in West Africa," 1904. 

Various African Tribes. 

Dowd, J.— "The Negro Races," 1907. 

Fritsch, G. — " Die Eingeborenen Sud-Afrika's," 

Hartmann, R.— " Die Nigritier," 1876. 

Hollis, A. C— "The Masai," 1905; "The Nandi," 

Johnston— "The Uganda Protectorate," 1902. 
Klunzinger, C. B. — "Upper Egypt" (translation), 

Preville,— " Les Societes Africaines," 1894. 

Bibliography 107 


Beddoe, J.— "The Races of Britain," 1885. 
Borlase, W. C— " The Dolmens of Ireland," 1897. 
Deniker, J. — " Les Races de l'Europe, I. l'lndice 

cephalique," 1899; Association Francaise Avance, 

Sci. (1897). 

Fouillee, A. — " Esquisse psychologique des Peuples 
Europeans," 1903. 

Holmes, T. Rice— "Ancient Britain," 1907. 
Mackinder, H. J. — "The Racial and Historical Geo- 
graphy of Britain," 1902. 

Rhys, J.— "Celtic Britain," 1904. 

Ripley, W. Z.— "The Races of Europe," 1900. 

Sergi, G.— "The Mediterranean Race," 1901. 


Hogarth, D. G.— "The Nearer East," 1902. 

Jackson, P. G.— "The Great Frozen Land," 1895. 

Little, A.—" The Farther East." 

Stanford's " Compendium of Geography." 

"The Jesup North Pacific Expedition." Mem. Am. 

Mus. Nat. Hist. Various memoirs by Bogoras, W., 

and Jochelson, W. 


Biddulph, J.— "Tribes of the Hindu-Kush," 1880. 

Crooke, W. — " The Tribes and Castes of the North-west 
Provinces and Oudh," 1896; "The North-west 
Provinces of India," 1897; "Natives of India." 1907. 

108 Bibliography 

Dalton, E.T. — " Descriptive Ethnology of Bengal," 1872. 
Dubois, J. A. — " Hindu Manners, etc.," (translation), 

Gait, E. A.— "A History of Assam," 1906. 
Gurdon, P. R. T.— "The Khasis," 1907. 
Hodson, T. C— " The Meitheis," 1908. 
Holdich, T. A.—" India," 1904. 

Hunter, W.W.— "A Statistical Account of Assam," 1879. 
Kennedy, J. — "The Mediaeval History of Northern 

India"; cf. "The Indian Empire," vol. II. 
Man, E. H. — "Aboriginal Inhabitants of the Andaman 

Islands," Journal Anth. Inst. XII., 1882. 

Marshall, W. E. — " A Phrenologist among the Todas," 

Oppert, G.— "The Original Inhabitants of India," 1894. 
Powell, B. H. Baden — "The Indian Village Community," 

Risley, H. H. — "The Tribes and Castes of Bengal, etc.," 

1892; "The People of India," 1908. 
Rivers, W. H. R.— "The Todas," 1906. 
Robertson, G. S. — "The Kafirs of the Hindu-Kush,' 

Smith, V. A.— "The early History of India," 1908. 
Stack, E.— "The Mikirs," 1908. 
Thurston, E. — " Ethnographical Notes in Southern 

India," 1906. 
Ujfalvy, C. de. — " Les Aryens au Nord et au Slid de 

l'Hindou-Kouch," 1896. 

See also "The Indian Empire" (4 vols.), being the 
introduction to "The Imperial Gazetteer of India," new 
edition, 1907; "Census of India," "Bulletin of the 
Madras Museum," "Journal of the Asiatic Society of 
Bengal," etc. 

Bibliography 109 

The Malay Peninsula and Burma. 

Forbes, C. J. F. S. — " British Burma and its People," 

Hall, H. P.— " The Soul of a People," 1898; "A People 

at School," 1906. 
Martin, R. — •« Die Inlandstamme der Malayischen 

Halbinsel," 1905. 
Moszkowski, M.— " Zeitschrift fur Ethnologie, XL," 1908, 

pp. 229, 634. 
Scott, J. G.— "The Burman," 1896; " Burma," 1906. 
Skeat, W. W.— " Malay Magic," 1900; and Blagden, 

C. O. — " Pagan Races of the Malay Peninsula," 

Swettenham, F. A.—" The Real Malay," 1900. 
Wilkinson, R. J.— "The Peninsula Malays," 1906. 


Furness, W. H. — "The Home Life of the Borneo Head- 

Hunters," 1902. 
Haddon, A. C— " Head-Hunters," 1901. 
Nieuwenhuis, A. W. — " Quer durch Borneo," 1904-07. 
Roth, H. L.— "The Natives of Sarawak," 1896. 

China and Japan. 

Bard, E.— "The Chinese at Home." 

Batchelor, G.— "The Ainu of Japan," 1892. 

Brinkley, F. — " Japan : Its History, Arts, and Literature " 

(Oriental Series), 1901. 
Carles, W.— " Life in Corea," 1888. 
Chamberlain, B. — "Things Japanese," 1891. 
Hearn, Lafcadio — "Japan: an Interpretation," 1904. 
" History of the Empire of Japan " (various authors), 


110 Bibliography 

Lacouperie, Terrien de — "The Languages of China 
before the Chinese," 1887 ; "Western origin of the 
early Chinese civilization," 1894. 

Okakura, Y. — " The Japanese Spirit," 1905. 

Richthofen— " China " vol. I, 1875. 

Rockhill, W. W.— " Notes on the Ethnology of Tibet," 

Smith, A. H.— "Chinese Characteristics," 1895. 


Bancroft, H. H. — "The Native Races of the Pacific 

States," 1874-82. 
Boas, P. — " Social Organization of the Kwakiutl," U.S. 

Nat. Mus. Report, 1895; " North-western Tribes of 

Canada," Brit. Assoc. Report, 1898. 
Boyle, D. (and others). — " Ethnography of Canada," 

Arch. Report, Ontario, 1905 (with many references 

to bibliography). 
Brinton, D. G.— " The American Race," 1891. 
Farrand, L. — " Basis of American History," 1904. 
Hill-Tout, C— " British North America," 1907. 
Hodge, P. W. (and others). — " Handbook of American 

Indians north of Mexico," 1907. 
Maclean, J. — "The Indians." 1892; "Canadian Savage 

Folk," 1896. 
Nansen, P.—" Eskimo Life," 1893. 
Rink, H. J. — " Tales and Traditions of the Eskimo," 

Whymper, P.—" Travels in Alaska," 1868. 
" The American Anthropologist " and " The Journal of 

American Folk-Lore." 
" The Annual Report of the Director of the Bureau of 

American Ethnology," 1881, etc. 

Bibliography 111 

N The Jesup North Pacific Expedition," Mem. Am. Mus. 

Nat. Hist., various vols. 
University of California Publications in American 

Archaeology and Ethnology. 
Field Columbian Museum (Field Museum of Natural 

History) Publications, Anthropological Series, 



Brett, W. H.— "The Indian Tribes of Guiana," 1868. 
Dance, C. D. — "Chapters from a Guianese Log-Book," 

Gadow, H.— "Through Southern Mexico," 1908. 
Hyades, P., et Deniker, J. — " Mission scientiflque du 

Cap Horn," 1891. 
Im Thurn, E. F. — "Among the Indians of Guiana," 1883. 
Keane, A. H. — " Central America and the West Indies," 

1901 ; " South America," 1901. 
Lumholtz, C. — " Unknown Mexico," 1902. 
Payne, E. J. — " History of the New World called 

America," 1892, 1899. 
Steinen, K. von den. — " Unter den Naturvolkern 

Zentral-Brasiliens," 1894 


Animal helper: An animal seen by a young man in a 
trance, which was supposed to be a manifestation of 
spiritual power, and thereafter helped him through- 
out life. 

Animatism (Marett) is a stage antecedent to animism, in 
which even material objects are endowed with life, 
or are regarded as living because of their own 
proper powers, or because they are self-power. 

Animism is the conception of a spirit energising objects, 
more especially of " souls of individual creatures, 
capable of continued existence after death or the 
destruction of the body," and of "other spirits, 
upward to the rank of powerful deities " (Tylor). 

Anthropophagy : Man-eating, cannibalism. 

Brachy cephalic : Broad-headed, having a cranial or 
cephalic index exceeding 80. 

Caste : A section of a larger community which stands in 
definite relations to other similar sections, and 
which usually has an occupational basis and a 
definite rule of endogamy. 

Caucasic : A term applied by some authors to Europeans 
and to other peoples possessing more or less similar 
physical characters. 

Cephalic index : The ratio of the breadth to the length in 
the head of a living subject, the length being taken 
as 100. 

Cheloid : A raised scar. 

Clan : See sept. 

114 Glossary 

Class : (Australia) A division of a phratry. 

Classificatory system of relationship : A system of relation 
ship under which relatives are grouped mainl) 
according to age-status and sex; for example, 2 
mother's sister, mother's brother's wife, father's 
brother's wife, and other women of that generation 
are called by the same term as the actual mother. 

Communal houses : Large houses shared by a community 
such as a totem-sept or village group. 

Couvade : A widely spread custom, which requires the 
father to rest or be in seclusion immediately aftet 
the birth of a child. This custom appears to be the 
logical outcome of a more or less rigid series of food 
or action taboos which are enforced previous to the 
birth of the child, and which may be continued 

Cranial index : The ratio of the breadth to the length in 
the skull, the length being taken as 100. 

Cymotrichi : People having wavy or curly hair. Adj. 

Dolichocephalic : Narrow-headed, having a cranial or 
cephalic index below 75. 

Endogamy : The obligation to marry within the group. 

Exogamy : The obligation to marry outside the group. 

Family : This term should be limited to the group of 
parents and children. The " extended family " is a 
group of persona descended from the same grand- 
father or grandmother, or more distant progenitor 
(actual, and not mythical, as is often the case in the 
sept). Occasionally, the extended family and the 
sept may correspond with one another. 

Father-right: A state of society in which descent is 
reckoned through the father ; the wife, on marriage, 
usually goes to live permanently with the husband's 

Glossary 115 

family or group; authority in the family is in the 
father's hands. 

'Fetish : Any object credited with mysterious powers 
owing to its having personality and will, or to its 
being, even temporarily, the representative or habita- 
tion of a spirit or deity. 

Frizzly : See ulotrichous. 

Leiotrichi : People having straight, lank hair. Adj. 

Leptorrhine : Having a nose narrow at the wings. 

Local group : A community, totemic or otherwise, living 
in an area over which it has collecting, hunting, 
and other rights. 

Mana : Described on p. 27. 

Manitou : Described on p. 87. 

Matrilineal: Where descent is reckoned through the 

Mesaticephalic : Medium-headed, having a cranial or 
cephalic index between 75 and 80. 

Mesorrhine : With a nose of moderate breadth at the 

Moiety : When there are only two phratries, and they are 
exogamous, so that a member of one division must 
marry a member of the other, the divisions are 
sometimes termed moieties. 

Mongolian eye : The eye is typically oblique, and shaped 
like a scalene triangle ; there is also a puffiness of 
the upper eyelid, which turns down at the inner 
angle of the narrowed eye, and instead of being free, 
as in the ordinary eye, is folded towards the eyeball, 
forming a fixed fold in front of the movable ciliary 
edge ; this last becomes invisible, and the eyelashes 
are scarcely seen ; also towards the inner angle of 
the eye, the eyelid forms a fold covering more or 

116 Glossary 

less of the caruncula, and may extend below it. 
(cf. Deniker). 

Monogamy : The marriage of one male with one female. 

Mother-right: A state of society in which there are two 
or all of the three conditions : (1) descent is reckoned 
through the mother; (2) on marriage the husband 
goes to live with the wife; (3) authority in the 
family is in the hands of the mother, the maternal 
uncles, or the mother's relatives in general. 

Nation : A complex group which may consist of various 
tribes or groups, speaking different languages, but 
united under a common government for external 
affairs. The constituents of a nation usually, 
however, speak the same language. Cf. p. 6. 

Orthognathous: Having no projection of the lower part 
of the face. 

Patrilineal : Where descent is reckoned through the 

People : A community inhabiting any given area in- 
dependent of race. Cf. p. 6. 

Perineal band: A band passing between the legs, fastened 

to a string round the hips. 
Phratry : A division of a tribe or local community which 

usually includes two or more exogamous septs or 

Platyrrhine: Having a nose broad at the wings. 
Polyandry : Marriage of one female with two or more 

Polygamy: Combined polygynous and polyandrous 


Polygyny : Marriage of one male with two or more females. 
Prognathous: Having the lower part of the face projecting. 
Pueblo: Village; for Pueblo Indians, see p. 88. 

Glossary 117 

Pygmy : Applied to those people whose average stature 
falls below l-5m. (4ft. 11 in.). 

Race : A main division of mankind, the members of which 
have important physical characters in common. 

Sachem: A "peace-chief" who regulates the ordinary 
affairs of the community, but does not lead a 

Scarification : Marking the skin with definite scars, a 
common practice of dark-skinned people, such scars 
being lighter in colour than the original skin. 

Sept\ The smallest exogamous section of a tribe or local 

Shamanism : A cult based on conceptions similar to those 
of fetishism, the sorcerer, or animistic priest, being 
frequently termed a Shaman. 

Steatopygia : A large development of fatty tissue in the 

Sulia : Described on p. 83 ; also cf. Manitou, 

Supernatural helpers : cf. Animal helpers. 

Taboo (tabu) : A Polynesian word implying separated or 
set apart either as forbidden or as sacred ; placed 
under ban or prohibition ; consecrated either to 
avoidance or to special use or regard. Cf. p. 30. 

Tattooing (tatuing) : Puncturing designs in the skin by 
means of a sharp pointed instrument which drives 
pigment below the surface of the skin. 

Territorial exogamous group : A group of people who 
must marry out of their district. 

Totemism: A mystical connection uniting certain individ- 
uals with a class of natural objects, usually all the 
members of a species of animal or a plant ; sometimes 
the totem is an inanimate body. Such group is best 
termed a totem-sept, but it has more frequently been 
termed a totem-clan, totem-kin, or totem-gens. 

118 Glossary 


Frequently there is practical reciprocity between the ' 
totem and the human members of the totem-sept. 
All individuals having the same totem, even when 
belonging to different local communities or tribes, 
are regarded as brethren; thus all septs, of whatever 
locality, having the same totem are virtually one 
sept. Typically each totem-sept is exogamous. 
Frequently totem-septs are grouped into phratries. 
Often the members of a totem-sept are supposed to 
influence the totem for the good of the community, 
and they may not injure or eat it under ordinary cir- 
cumstances; there is thus a reciprocity between 
them. All human beings having the same totem 
must help and never injure one another. 

Tribe : A group of a simple kind occupying a circum- 
scribed area, having a common language, common 
government, and a common action in warfare. Cf. 
p. 6. 

Ulotrichi : People having hair with numerous, close, curly, 
often interlocking spirals. Adj. ulotrichous, 

Wakanda : Described on p. 86. 


The darker figures are the chief references. 





Admiralty Islands .. 
Adriatic Races 
Aetas (Aitas) 

British East.. 


1 .E*£ISL ••• •• 

... 100 

31, 34 
... 13 

• • • v/D 

... 20 

16, 43,46 

9, 73 


... 32 

... 31 

... 31 

Equatorial 10, 11, 32, 34 


.. 38 
.. 14 
.. 13 
10, 11 
31, 37. 38 

German West 


North-east .. 

South-west .. 


Aham (Hindu Assamese) 65, 66 
Ahirs ... ... ... ... 59 

Ainus 8, 15 (pi. iv), 16, 49, 50 
Aket (Orang Raket) ... 73 

Alakalufs 101 

Albanians 46 

Aleutian Islanders 80 

Algonquians 85, 87 

Alpine Race 8, 15,40,41, 42, 

43, 44, 45, 46, 51, 61 

Altai 50 

Amaripas 95 

Amazon ... 90, 92, 93, 94 

Amazonians ... 92, 93-95 97 
America ... 16, 79-102 

Central South 19, 92 

American Indians ... 79-102 

— of the Amazon & Orinoco 
with Guiana 90, 92, 93-96 


American Indians of 

Eastern and Southern 
Brazil ... 90, 92, 97-99 

— of the Eastern Wood- 
lands ... 79, 87-88 

— of the Great Plains 

79, 85-87 

— of the Lower 

— of the Northern 


79, 83-85 

79, 82-83 

79, 81-82 

— of the Northern 

— of the Pampas with Tierra 

del Fuego 90, 99-102 

— of the South-west and 

Mexico ... 79, 88-90 

Amerinds, Central 8, 19, 89-90 


8, 19, 79, 85-88 


8, 19, 79, 81-85 


8, 19, 90-102 


• • • 

... 8, 16, 43 


6, 7, 9, 71-72 


• • ■ 


Andes ... 

< • • 

90, 93, 97, 100 


• • • 



• • • 

... 67 


• • • 

... ... oo 


• • ■ 



- > • 

■ • • . • • *j*y 


■ • • 



13, 14 

(pi. iii), 34, 51 


, # 


Araucanians ... 

91-92, 100 






Arawaks 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 98 

Arecuna 95 

Argentina ... 91, 98, 100 

Arizona 90 

Armenian 14, 16 

Aryan invaders of North- 
ern India (Aryas) 

3, 51, 56, 59 
Aryans 3, 49, 50, 51, 56, 59 


— Central... 

— Minor ... 

— North-east 

— South-west 

— West ... 

" Asiatic Greeks " 







Atlantic Slope 



Atlanto-AIeditcrranean Race 42 

Atlas Mountains 




Australians 7, 13, 22 




Bah i ma 
Baikal, Lake... 
Balkan Peninsula 


Balz, Dr. E. 

... 60 

21, 48-78 

... D*£ 

16, 17, 52 

... 16 

14, 61 

51, 52 

... 57 

2, 40 



... 14 


49n., 50 


... 15 

• • • %J*J 

... 98 
11, 13, 20 
24 (pi. vi) 
... 43 
... 91 
89, 90 


Banks Islands 

- Bantu 7, 10, 11, 32, 33, 38-39 

- Basques 42 











Bismarck Archipelago 





51, 78 

• •• ••• ± d 

• • • • • • *T — ^ 

60, 61, 64, 65 


Brazil, Indians of 

British Isles - 

Broad-headed people 

... 34 

... 59 

... 62 


... 60 

... 12 

... 51 

92, 98 

2, 14, 76-78 

• >•• yy 

19, 97 

59, 60 

90, 92, 93, 94, 97-99 
... 97 
... 41 


6, 7, 10, 31, 32, 33, 34-35 


... 60 

• • • • %JkJ 

18, 45 
. 67, 68-70 
68, 69, 70 
.65, 68-70 

... 17 

Caddoan 85 

Cainguas 98 

Calchaquis 91 

California 79, 84 

Californians S3-84 

Lower 84 

Cameroons 11 

Canarcse 60, 61 

Cape Colony 32, 38 

Caribs 92, 93-94, 95, 96, 98 

— Black 96 

— Yellow 96 

Carinya (true Carib) ... 95 
Caspian 17 



" Caucasic features 











Chimu (Trujillo) 

China, North-west 

— South 

— South-west 
Chinese S, 18 (pi. 
Chiriguanos ... 
Chota Nagpur 



Codrington, Dr. R 

Cordilleras see An 
Cro-Magnon ... 
Crooke, W. ... 
Cuzco ... 
Cymotrichi ... 


... 70 

... 15 

.. 13, 51, 78 


.. 8, 16, 43 

6, 12, 62, 63 

... 60 

... 59 

... 18 

... 88 


... 91 

... 57 

50, 67 

... 70 

v), 50, 51, 78 

..67, 69-70 

..67, 69-70 

... 98 



16, 54, 55 

• ■ • • • DO 

• • * • • y o 


H. ... 28 

..60, 61-62 

... 42 

... 57 

... 91 

7, 12-16 

Dasyus 3, 56 

Dayaks, Land 76 

Sea (I ban) 77, 78 

Deccan ... 12, 13, 56, 60, 62 

Dene 82-83 

Deniker, Dr. J. 

15, 18, 19, 42, 43, 44, 46, 90, 91 

Denmark 41 

Dinaric Race... 16,43. 46 


Dolichocephalic peoples of 

Northern Asia 49 



• •• ••• ••• *I70 

3, 7, 13, 15, 51, 60, 
61, 62, 63, 64, 65 

• •• ■•• Ml Ol 

••• ••• ••• / o 

East Brazilians 92 

East Indian Archipelago 

14, 18, 21, 51, 76 
Easter Island ... 14, 129 

Egypt 33 

Egyptians, Ancient and 

Ephthalites .., 

Esthonians ... 
Ethiopians ... 



Europeans ... 

... 2, 13, 15 



2, 8, 18-19, 79, 
80-81 (pi. ix) 

7, 13 
16, 18, 40-47 

■ • • • • • *J — 

2, 15 

Farrand, Prof. L 87 

Fiji 12, 20, 26 

Fijian 2 

Finno-Ugrian 43, 45, 49, 50 

Finns 18, 45 

Flemings 42 

Flower, Sir W. H 70 

Foxes 87 

France 15, 41-42 

France, prehistoric cave- 
dwellers in lCn. 

Fuegians 101-102 

Fulah 13, 33 

Furness, Dr. W. H. ... 67 

Further India ... 14, 18 




Garos ... 

Germans, Ancient 

vJv_o • ■ • • « • 





Gran Chaco ... 



Guatemala ... 



Guiana, Indians of 

Guinea Coast 


Gupta Empire 



.90, 93, 


13, 33 
... 67 

... 100 

• • • i ' . ' 

... 39 

... 43 

93, 97, 98 
16, 54 
... 17 
... 16 
... 59 

99, 100 
40, 46 
... 2 
... 90 
... 100 

94, 95, 97 
... 11 
58, 59 
58, 61 
58, 59 

7, 10, 11, 13 ; 





Herders on the Steppes 

on the Tundra 

Himalayas ... 15 







X X \J ••• ••• ••• 


Homo Mcditcrrancnsis 


7, 10-11,31, 32, 



Huns, White 

... 81 

32, 33 

... 34 

14, 29 

... 53 

... 54 

, 51, 56 

8, 18 

... 34 

• • • r>. / 

... 60 

14, 16 

50, 57 

... 65 

... 58 

... 15 

. . . 5o 
... 43 
.. 58 
... 88 

ban (Sea Dayaks) 




ndia 21, 

— South ... 
ndies, West... 
ndo- Aryans 
ndo-China ... 


.8, 14,21, 
rani an 



8, 1 




• •• ••• 1 \J 



51, 52, 56-65 
63, 64 


... 8, 13-14 

• • • • • • \J\j 

... 18, 68, 70 
4, 18, 21, 50, 
, 65-70, 74-78 

• •• ••• / o 

51, 65, 68, 76 

■ •■ ••• ~t •■) 

■•• ••• ii 

7, 12 

• • * • ■ * 0~t 

• • • ••• *T O 


• • • 

... 98 

Jakuns (" 






• • • 


... 96 


• • • 

• • « 

... 50 


• • • 



- - • 

• • • 

... 95 


• • • 


... 95 

Jews ... 


6, 14 


Sir Harry 

... ^ » — 

Jones, W. 

. . . 

• • • 

... 87 


• ■ • 

... 65 

Jungle Tribes of the Dcccan 


12, 62 


• • • 




• • • 

* • • 

7, 12 


■ • • 


... 57 


• • • 

... 67, 



• • • 

• • • 

... 98 


• • • 

• • • 

... 76 






• • • • 

10, 31 

Littoral Race 



5 • • • 

... 77 




• • • • 

63, 68 




• • • • 

17, 44 


• • • • 

... 98 


... 16 


• • • • 

... 66 


• • . B » • X/O 


• • • • i 

... 58 




• • • • 



18, 43 

• • • • 

... 45 




• • • • 

... 70 


63, 64 


... 96 




• • • • 

... 17 

Malay Peninsula 


- _ 

... 17 

9, 12 

, 72, 74-76, 78 

Keane, Prof 

A. H. 

Malayan Archipel; 

igo ... 67 

15, 11 

3, 51, 70, 75 

Malays 18, 72, 

74-76, 77, 78 

Kennedy, J. 

• • • • 

... 59 

" — Savage" (Jakun) ... 74 

Kenyan- Kay 


... 77 




• • • • 

17, 53 

Manchu- Koreans 



• • • • i 

... 66 


... 16, 17, 49 


■ •• • « 

... 66 


... 65 


* • • • • 

68, 69 


50, 67 


• • • (i 

... 35 

■-Maori, pi. vii, p 

28, cf. 


• • • • 

... 34 



••■ • 

... 85 


• •• •■• *_' A 


• * • •! 

17, 45 

Marathas (Mahrattas) 


• ■•• • 1 

63, 68 

Marquesas ... 


Kols ... 

• • • • 



13, 33 


• • • 

. 8, 17,50 




• • I ■ 

16, 54 

Matto Grosso 


Kublai Khan 




Kukis ... 

• • • • 

..65, 66, 67 

-Maya ... 

89, 90 

Kunbi or Ku 




15, 31 


• • • • 

7, 12 

Mediterranean Race 


• • • • 

57, 58 

8, 15, 40, 41, 

42, 46, 47, 52 


• • • • i 

81, 82 


... 65 

11, 20, 2). 29 

Melanesian Archipelago 20, 21 

"Melanesians ... 6, 

7, 12,20, 21, 


« • • • 

• ... 16 




L, 45, 52, 55 

Mergui Archipelag 

;o ... 68 


• « • • 

. 8, 16-19 


79, 84, 89-90 

Lena ... 

• • • • 

... 17 

— New 



• • • • 

... 100 

Micronesia ... 


Letto -Lithuanians . 

... 44 




• • • • 



93, 04 


• • • • 







Misteca 89 

Molu-chc 92 

Mon 68, 69 

Mongolo-Draviuians ... 65 

Mongols 8, 17, 41, 44, 48, 70 

Northern 48 

Oceanic 18 

Southern ... 18, 50 
(cf. Indo-Chinese) 



Morgan, L. H. 
Moszkowski, M. 

M undas 

Munda-speaking peoples 


M units 



... 65 
... 64 
... 98 
14, 76 

56, 65, 66-67 
89, 90 

• • * • • * *y\J 

• . . ... Oo 



Nahuatlaca ... 

6, 7, 9-10, 32, 34 (pi. viii) 

-Negritoes of Asia 7, 9, 20, 21, 

51, 70-73, 74, 78 

of the Philippines 

(Aetas) 9, 73 

2, 4, 6, 7, 11, 13, 32, 

33, 36-38, 70, 96 



Neolithic inhabitants of 

Western Europe 


New Britain 
New Caledonia 
New Guinea 

11,12, 20, 21, 2 1, 25, 26, 27 



12, 20, 





Nordics, sec T\'orthern Race 
Northern Race 8, 15, 40, 41, 
42, 43, 44, 46, 49 
Norway 41 

— Hebrides 

— Zealand 
Niam Niam , 
Nile Valley , 

25, 26, 27 
14, 26 
... 13 
... 11 
... 11 



Orang Bukit ... 

— Laut ... 

— Malayu 

— Raket (Meet). 
Oriental Race 



... 48 
87, 88 
93, 95 
18, 55 
.. . 89 

Pacific Slope... 

Pah lavas 

Palajasiatics ... 






Papuans 6, 7, 11 


Indians of 

• •• ••• Iks 


8, 15, 16,48 

8, 19 

... ... 68 

90, 99, 100 

92, 99-101 

93, 94 

(pl.ii), 12, 13. 

20, 21, 24-28 

97, 98 

Parercans 18, 50, cf. Indo 

Parihar Rajputs 



. 100 
HPatagonians ... 8, 19, 100-101 


Pay ag uas 


...85, 86-87 


• •* ••• 10 




51, 57 
... 66 

... 9, 73, 78 






20, 21, 28, 29 


Philippines ... 
Plata, Rio de la 



8, 14, 21, 22 (pi. vii), 28-30 

Prabhus 61 

Pre-Dravidians 7,12-13,20, 

22-24, 51, 62, 74, 78 

Pre -Semitic ... ... ... 52 

Proto- Finns ... ... ... 50 


8,'l4, 18, 21, 51, 68, 76 

Proto-Polyneaians 21 

Pueblo Indians 88-89, 90 

Puel-che 92, 100 

Puen-che 92 

Punan 2, 76 

Punjab ... 56, 57, 58, 59 

Pygmies 3, 6, 7, 9-10, 20, 21, 

32, 34, 51, 70-73, 74, 78 


90, 91 



St. Vincent 
-Sakai ... 

Sakas ... 






San Domingo 


Sarasin, Dr. F. 


Scandinavia ... 







Senoi .. 


Shahaptians . 

Shan ... 




Siberians, Eastern 

Rajputana 58, 59 

Rajputs 14, 58-59, 60, 61, 62 

Risley, Sir H. H. 
Rivers, Dr. W. H 
Roumanians ... 

Russians, Great 




• • • • • • 0"x 

• • • O 1 * 0"i 

... . ... 96 

7, 12-13, 51, 74 


... ... 83 

14, 29 


18, -15, 54, 55 

■ . ■ . • • 0"x 

... 58, 60, 65 

R 64 


... 18, 44-45 

• « • ♦ » » ri Jfc 





18, 41 

40, 41 

60, 63 

... ... ... O / 

... ... .,. 68 


... 7, 9, 72-73, 74 
2, 8, 13, 14, 15. 34, 5 2 




65, 66, 63, 70 




Smith, Vincent A 


Solomon Islands 


Somaliland ... 


Sudan ... 

-Sudanese, Eastern, Western 11 

Sudras 59, 63 

Sumatra 9, 12, 51, 73, 75, 78 

Sumers ... 52 

Sweden 40, 41 

Switzerland 42 

... S4 
63, 70 
... 16 
... 18 


... 85-86, 87 

45, 46 

58, 59 

• •• • • • D*J 

24, 25, 27, 28 

• •■ ••• oo 

11, 32, 34 




i at ... ... 



Tanganyika ... 
Tasmanians ... 

— Crimean 

— Volga... 
Tavastians ... 
Tchuel-che ... 


Teutonic Race 
Tierra del Fuego 90 
Thurston, E. 
Tlingit • ... 
Tobas ... 





Torres Islands 

— Straits 
Tubas ... 
Tungus 8, 16, 17, 48, 49, 54 
Tupi (Tupi-Guarani) 92, 93, 98 
Tupis, Eastern or Guarani 98 

— Western 98 

Turanians 49n.,50 

Turkey 17 

Turki 8, 17, 41, 4% 46, 48, 49, 

50, 51, 52, 57 

Turkistan, Chinese... 17, 50 

Russian ... ... 17 


.. . 98 

66, 68, 70 


... 100 


• • . oZ 

... 51 

92, 97 

... 89 

... 95 

... 11 

... 20 

17, 58 

... 45 

... 45 



... 63 

63, 68 

... 15 

8, 18, 51 

65, 68, 69 

99, 100, 101 

... 91 

... 63 

... 81 

7, 13, 78 

... 100 

... 64 

89, 90 

14, 29 








Turkomans 17, 

Turks ... 46. 

Uganda 31, 32, 


Ugrian Finns 

Ugrians 8, 17-18, 41, 45, 


Uigurs (Uighurs) ... 17, 


Ulotrichi 6, 7, 9- 

United Provinces (India) ... 


Ural-Altaians8, 15, 16-18,41, 

45,46, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52-55, 



Vedas ... 

-Veddas ... 7, 12, 62, 

Vistulian Race 

Wa ... 

Wilkinson, R. J. 

Xingu River 













ALllU ... ... ... OC>, 


• • • -JO j 

• • • i *J j 

93, 94, 98, 

... 101-K 
17, ! 






This book is due on the last date stamped below, or 

on the date to which renewed. 

Renewed books are subject to immediate recall. 

® * MAR 1 1 1867 ? 



~2M~ e 1968 69 


D b C 17 1 9 C5 







■ ^ ■ 


* -A 






tiovf w 

HAY 2 5C/-8PM 

- -I 

DEC17 198 6 

LD 21A-60w-4,'64 

General Library 

University of California 


YB &5%b 

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